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中国沿海地区城镇用地时空演变及影响因素分析
Alternative TitleSpatio-temporal characteristics and influential factors of urban land in China’s coastal zone
杜培培
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor侯西勇
2022-05-23
Training institution中国科学院大学
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Name工学博士学位
Degree Discipline环境科学
Keyword中国沿海,城镇用地,时空演变,阶段差异,影响因素
Abstract全球化、信息化和市场化等推动了我国经济的快速发展,城镇空间形态发生了巨大的变化。与西方发达国家不同,改革开放以来我国城镇化进程加快,短短几十年时间完成了发达国家几百年的城镇化发展历程,在城镇化过程中也产生了诸如土地盲目扩张、土地滥用、生态环境破坏等问题,严重阻碍了城镇的高质量发展。中国沿海地区是我国经济发展的引擎带,人口和经济集聚,然而受区位、资源禀赋、政策倾斜等多种因素影响,中国沿海地区经济发展极不平衡,城镇化水平和城镇用地规模存在明显差异。鉴于此,亟需厘清中国沿海城镇用地扩张特征和规律,为科学制定城市发展规划、优化城市发展布局提供参考和依据,以促进中国沿海区域的可持续发展。 为全面了解近期中国沿海城镇用地的时空演变特征,本论文开展了以下研究工作:(1)基于2020年覆盖中国海岸带的Landsat 8遥感影像,采用目视解译方法对研究组已建立的2000~2015年中国海岸带土地利用数据集进行更新补充,得到2000~2020年中国海岸带5年间隔的土地利用数据集;(2)从土地利用的时空变化、土地利用的转移特征等方面分析中国沿海地区土地利用的时空演变特征,揭示城镇扩张在区域土地利用变化中所占的“分量”,以及揭示中国沿海新增城镇用地的来源特征;(3)基于多时相城镇用地数据,从面积变化、空间分布、扩张速度、扩张类型、规模分布等多个角度详细分析中国沿海城镇用地的时空演变特征;(4)选取辽东半岛、胶东半岛、长江三角洲、粤港澳大湾区、海南和台湾等典型区域,在沿海典型区域层面进一步深入分析城镇用地的时空演变特征;(5)从资源禀赋、人口和经济增长、政策引导等多个方面对中国沿海及典型区域城镇用地时空演变的影响因素进行分析和讨论。主要结果和结论如下: (1)2000~2020年,中国沿海地区土地利用变化的基本特征表现为:人工湿地、城镇用地、农村居民点和独立工矿及交通用地的面积占比均表现出明显的上升趋势;林地、滨海湿地、草地、内陆水体、浅海水域和未利用地等均不同程度的减少。耕地、林地、农村居民点是新增城镇用地的主要来源,三者向城镇用地的净流入面积总和占新增城镇用地总面积的比例在不同时期均超过75%。 (2)2000~2020年,中国沿海地区城镇用地扩张的基本特征表现为:城镇用地面积由2000年的11473.88 km2增加至2020年的29453.60 km2,新增城镇用地面积达17979.72 km2。但不同阶段又表现出明显的差异:2000~2005年和2005~2010年中国沿海地区城镇用地规模持续扩大,部分大中城市出现少量“卫星”城镇,土地集约利用程度增加;2010~2015年,受国际和国内经济形势的影响,城镇用地扩张的动力不足,新增城镇用地面积大幅降低,部分地区城镇用地扩张由边缘延伸型变为填充型;2015~2020年,经济形势好转,城镇用地扩张面积高达5319.39 km2。 (3)受城市群发展和地貌等因素影响,中国沿海地区城镇用地的时空演变具有明显的区域差异特征。例如,在典型区层面:辽东半岛和胶东半岛是依托交通网络形成点轴式城镇群落;长江三角洲形成单核聚集(上海)、主-副中心(上海-苏州)联动、多中心(杭州、宁波)轴向发展的城镇空间群落;粤港澳大湾区形成沿海湾带状扩张、组团聚集、多核心联合的高度聚集城镇群落;海南和台湾城镇用地空间分布受地理环境制约,地势较低的平原地区城镇用地组团聚集。 (4)影响中国沿海城镇用地空间形态及其变化的因素主要有地形、交通区位、城市群发展、人口和经济增长以及政策引导等。平原、台地和丘陵以及交通轴线附近地区更有利于城镇的出现和发展;人口和经济增长引发城镇用地短缺,城镇用地扩张推动人口和经济集聚。中央和地方政府通过发展战略、区域规划等引导资源流动,加快产业转移和市场共建,从而影响城镇用地空间演变。受地理区位和政策倾斜等的影响,2000~2020年上海城镇用地规模稳居中国沿海首位;天津市第二名的位置逐渐被苏州取代,其他城市如东莞、青岛、深圳、宁波等排名呈现出“此消彼长”的特征,辽宁、广西和海南等省区沿海城市的城镇用地规模整体上落后其他沿海区域的城市。 (5)大城市城镇用地扩张速度一般高于中小城市,但受中央和地方政府制定的发展战略和规划等因素的影响中小城市在城市快速崛起的关键时期内其城镇用地增长速度可能高于大城市。
Other AbstractGlobalization, informatization and marketization have promoted the rapid development of China's economy, and the spatial pattern of cities and towns has undergone tremendous changes. Unlike Western developed countries, China's urbanization process has accelerated since the reform and opening up, and the development of urbanization in developed countries has been completed in just a few decades. In the process of urbanization, problems such as mindless land expansion, land abuse and ecological environment destruction have occurred, which seriously hinder the high-quality development of urbanization. However, due to various factors such as location, resource endowment and policy inclination, the economic development of China's coastal zone is extremely unbalanced, and there are obvious differences in the level of urbanization and the scale of urban land. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the pattern of urban land expansion in China's coastal areas to provide reference and basis for scientific urban development planning and optimization of urban development layout, so as to promote the sustainable development of China's coastal regions. In order to comprehensively understand the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban land in China's coastal zone, this study carried out the following works: (1) Based on several Landsat 8 remote sensing images covering China's coastal zone in 2020, the visual interpretation method was used to update and supplement the land use dataset of China's coastal zone from 2000 to 2015 already established by the research group to obtain the land use data set covering China's coastal zone from 2000 to 2020; (2) analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of land use in China's coastal areas in terms of spatial and temporal changes in land use and land use transfer characteristics, revealed the "weight" of urban expansion in regional land use change, and obtained the land use sources of new urban land in China's coastal areas; (3) Based on multi-temporal urban land data, the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban land in China’s coastal zone are analyzed in detail from various perspectives, such as area change, spatial distribution, growth rate, expansion type and scale distribution; (4) We select coastal provinces and cities, such as Liaodong Peninsula, Jiaodong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area, Hainan and Taiwan, as typical regions and analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of urban land in typical regions; (5) We analyze and discuss the factors influencing the spatial and temporal evolution of coastal urban land and typical regions in China from various aspects, such as resource endowment, population and economic growth and policy guidance. The main conclusions are as follows. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) During 2000 to 2020, human activities have been active along the coast of China, and the proportion of human made wetland, urban land, rural settlement, and isolated industrial-mining have all shown an obvious increasing trend; forest, coastal wetlands, grassland, inland freshwaters, coastal saltwater and unused have all decreased to different degrees. Farmland, forest and rural settlement are the main sources of new urban land, and the total net inflow of all three to urban land accounted for more than 75% of the total area of new urban land during different periods. (2) During 2000 to 2020, the area of coastal urban land in China increased from 11,473.88 km2 in 2000 to 29,453.60 km2 in 2020, with a new urban of 17,979.72 km2. However, different stages show obvious differences: during 2000 to 2010, the extent of urban land continued to expand, with a small number of "satellite" towns appeared in some areas, and the degree of intensive land use increased; during 2010 to 2015, due to the international and domestic economic situation, the incentive for urban land expansion is insufficient, the area of new urban land is significantly reduced and type of urban expansion changed from edge extension to infill; during 2015 to 2020, China's economic situation improves and its international status is further improved, and the area of urban land expansion reaches 5319.39 km2. (3) There are obvious differences in the spatial and temporal evolution of urban land use in several typical coastal areas. For example, at the typical zone level: The Liaodong and Jiaodong peninsulas form point-axis town clusters by relying on transportation networks; the Yangtze River Delta The Yangtze River Delta forms a spatial cluster of cities and towns with a single core (Shanghai), a main-sub-center (Shanghai-Suzhou) linkage, and a multi-center (Hangzhou, Ningbo) axial development; the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area forms a highly clustered city and town cluster with a belt-like expansion along the bay, a cluster gathering, and a multi-core union; the spatial distribution of urban land in Hainan and Taiwan is constrained by the geographic environment, and urban land in the plains with low terrain is clustered. (4) The factors which impact the spatial pattern of urban land in China's coastal zone are mainly topography, transportation location, population and economic growth, and policy guidance. Plains, terraces and hills, as well as areas near transportation axes, are more suitable for the emergence and development of cities and towns; population and economic growth lead to a shortage of urban land, and urban land expansion promotes population and economic agglomeration. The central and local governments guide the flow of resources through development strategies and regional planning to accelerate industrial transfer and market co-location, thus influencing the spatial evolution of urban land. Due to the influence of geographical location and policy inclination, during 2000~2020, the scale of urban land in Shanghai ranked first in China's coastal zone; Tianjin's second place position is gradually replaced by Suzhou, and other cities such as Dongguan, Qingdao, Shenzhen and Ningbo show a "catching up" status, while coastal cities such as Liaoning, Guangxi and Hainan are behind other coastal cities on the whole. (5) The growth rate of urban land in large cities is generally higher than that of small and medium-sized cities, but the growth rate of urban land in small and medium-sized cities may be higher than that of large cities due to factors such as development strategies and planning formulated by the central and local governments during the critical period of rapid urban development.
Pages203
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/30983
Collection中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出_学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杜培培. 中国沿海地区城镇用地时空演变及影响因素分析[D]. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所. 中国科学院大学,2022.
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