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小清河口邻近海域渔业资源结构及三种常见经济种遗传多样性特征
Alternative TitleStructure of fishery resources and genetic diversity of three common economic species in Xiaoqing River Estuary and its adjacent waters
刘英
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李宝泉
2022-05-12
Training institution中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Grantor中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Name工程硕士
Degree Discipline生物工程
Keyword小清河口邻近海域 渔业资源 群落结构 经济种 遗传多样性 Xiaoqing River Estuary and its adjacent waters Fishery resources Community structure Economic species Genetic diversity
Abstract小清河口邻近海域曾经是莱州湾主要产卵场。近几十年来,全球气候变化以及小清河污染和过度捕捞已经严重影响了该区域的海洋生态系统,导致生物群落结构发生变化,渔业资源可持续利用降低。为了解该区域渔业资源结构现状和变化以及三种常见经济种的遗传多样性特征,本研究基于小清河口邻近海域2020年6月、8月和10月三个航次的现状调查数据,结合2009-2016年的历史资料,开展了小清河口邻近海域渔业资源的现状以及年际变化特征分析。并基于线粒体COI基因,完成了口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)、三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)和中国明对虾(Penaeus chinensis)三个常见经济种的遗传多样性现状评估。主要研究结果如下: 1. 小清河口邻近海域渔业生物群落季节变化 2020年在小清河口邻近海域共捕获渔业资源种类102种,其中鱼类35种,甲壳动物35种,软体动物26种,棘皮动物2种,多毛类2种和其他动物2种,捕获鱼卵仔稚鱼10种。渔业资源种类存在明显的季节性变化,其中,6月捕获渔业生物70种,鱼卵仔稚鱼7种;8月捕获渔业生物57种,鱼卵仔稚鱼7种;10月捕获渔业生物70种。优势种和重要种不同季节间更替明显,导致群落结构发生较大变化。Pielou均匀度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数及资源密度均在夏季达到最高值。春季和秋季群落结构存在显著空间差异,夏季不存在明显空间差异。 2. 小清河口邻近海域渔业生物群落的年际变化 基于2009-2020年8月份渔业资源历史数据分析,无脊椎动物种数及相对资源量均表现为先下降后上升,鱼类种数整体表现为持续性下降。渔业资源结构也发生了较大变化,如小黄鱼(Larimichthys polyactis)作为传统底层鱼类已较少发现,优势种由黄鲫(Setipinna tenuifilis)变为矛尾虾虎鱼(Chaeturichthys stigmatias)、斑鰶(Konosirus punctatus)和更小型无脊椎动物,且无脊椎动物渔获量的占比逐年提高。生物多样性指数变化趋势有所不同,表现为丰富度指数持续下降,多样性指数先上升后下降,均匀度指数上升后保持稳定。 3. 基于COI基因的口虾蛄种群遗传多样性 口虾蛄是西北太平洋广布种,是我国沿海常见经济种类之一。本文对获得的216条长为655 bp的口虾蛄COI基因片段进行分析。结果显示,4种核苷酸组成上,A+T含量明显高于C+G含量。在所有位点中,检测到63个多态位点,并定义单倍型90个,其中,种群内存在大量(55个)独特单倍型。核苷酸多样性为0.508%,单倍型多样性为0.97。通过比较2011-2020年的历史数据,小清河口邻近海域口虾蛄种群遗传多样性一直维持在较高水平,且年际变化不明显。 4. 基于COI基因的三疣梭子蟹种群遗传多样性 三疣梭子蟹在我国沿海分布广泛,是重要增殖放流种类之一。本文分析了55条长度为684 bp的三疣梭子蟹线粒体COI基因序列片段,结果显示,碱基组成上,A+T含量明显高于C+G含量。通过序列比对,检测出多态位点14个,并定义13个单倍型,其中,种群内独特单倍型仅5个;核苷酸多样性为0.215%,单倍型多样性为0.80。与2006年数据相比,该区域2020年三疣梭子蟹种群遗传多样性水平有所下降。 5. 基于COI基因的中国明对虾种群遗传多样性 中国明对虾历史上资源丰富,是重要增养殖种类。本研究分析了49条长度为684 bp线粒体COI基因序列片段,结果显示,A+T含量明显高于C+G含量。检测出5个多态位点,并定义6个单倍型,其中,仅2个单倍型属于独特单倍型;核苷酸多样性为0.071%,单倍型多样性为0.50;通过比较1995-2020年的历史数据,中国明对虾种群遗传多样性呈现出先下降后上升的变化规律。 综上,本论文通过现状调查结合历史资料的分析,掌握了小清河口邻近海域渔业资源的现状和年际变化特征。通过分析发现,小清河口邻近海域渔业资源结构发生改变,整体表现为无脊椎动物的优势地位和渔获量比例上升。我们评估口虾蛄、三疣梭子蟹和中国明对虾三个常见经济种的遗传多样性现状发现三种常见经济种的遗传多样性也受到不同程度的影响。其中,口虾蛄遗传多样性虽多年维持较高水平,在开发利用过程中也应加强资源保护,而三疣梭子蟹和中国明对虾遗传多样性较低,对两个种群数量和遗传多样性的保护和恢复刻不容缓。
Other AbstractXiaoqing River Estuary and its adjacent waters was once the main spawning ground in Laizhou Bay. In recent decades, due to global climate change, pollution and overfishing, the regional marine ecosystem, including the structure of biological resources and the sustainable utilization of fishery resources, had been seriously impacted. With the aim of understanding the composition and changes of fishery resources as well as the three common economic species’ genetic resources in this region, three voyages in June, August and October 2020 in Xiaoqing River Estuary and its adjacent waters were carried out. Comnbined with analysis of the historical data from 2009 to 2016, we investigated the interannual variation of fishery resources. And three common economic species, Oratosquilla oratoria, Portunus trituberculatus and Penaeus chinensis, were selected to analyze their genetic diversity based on mitochondrial COI gene. The main results were as follows: 1. Seasonal variation of fishery resources in Xiaoqing River Estuary and its adjacent waters in 2020 In 2020, 102 species of fishery resources were captured, with 35 species of fish, 35 species of crustaceans, 26 species of mollusk, 2 species of echinoderms, 2 species of polychaeta and 2 species of other animals. Besides, 10 species of fish eggs & larvae were collected. The speices composition showed seasonal variation during three surveys, e.g., 70 species taxa and 7 fish eggs & larvae taxa in June, 57 species taxa and 7 fish eggs & larvae taxa in August, and 70 species in October. The seasonal changes of dominant and important species were obvious, leading to great changes in community structure. The values of Pielou evenness index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and resource density all were the highest in summer. There were significant spatial differences in community structure in spring and autumn, but no significant spatial differences in summer. 2. Interannual changes of fishery resources structure in Xiaoqing River Estuary and its adjacent waters from 2009 to 2020 Based on the historical data of fishery resources in August from 2009 to 2020, it was found that the species number of invertebrate taxa and relative resource vaule decreased firstly then increased in this region, while the species number of fish continuously decreased during this time scale. The fishery resource structure also underwent great changes, such as Larimichthys polyactis was less found, and Setipinna tenuifilis replaced by smaller species such as Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Konosirus punctatus and other invertebrate species. Meanwhile, the proportion of invertebrate in total catches kept increasing yearly. The trend of biodiversity indexes was different, which showed that the richness index continued to decline, the diversity index rised firstly then decreased, and the evenness index remained stable after rising. 3. Genetic diversity of O. oratoria population based on COI gene O. oratoria, widely distributed species in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, is one of the common economic species along the coast of China. In this work, 216 COI gene fragments with a length of 655 bp of this species collected during three surveys were analyzed. The results showed that the content of A + T was significantly higher than that of C + G. In all loci sits, 63 polymorphic loci were detected and 90 haplotypes were defined, including 55 unique haplotypes. The nucleotide diversity was 0.508% and the haplotype diversity was 0.97, indicating a high genetic diversity. By comparing the historical data from 2011 to 2020, a high genetic diversity of O. oratoria in this region had been maintained with an unobvious interannual variation. 4. Genetic diversity of P. trituberculatus population based on COI gene P. trituberculatus is one of the important species suiting for cultivation and proliferation, which is widely distributed along the coast of China. In this work, 55 mitochondrial COI gene fragments of P. trituberculatus with a length of 684 bp of this species were analyzed. The results showed that the content of A + T was significantly higher than that of C + G. Through sequences alignment, 14 polymorphic loci were detected and 13 haplotypes with 5 unique haplotypes were defined. The nucleotide diversity of P. trituberculatus was 0.215%, the haplotype diversity was 0.80, indicating a medium genetic diversity. Compared with the data in 2006, the genetic diversity of P. trituberculatus population in this region decreased in 2020. 5. Genetic diversity of P. chinensis population based on COI gene P. chinensis was once an important species for aquaculture and proliferation. This study analyzed 49 mitochondrial COI gene fragments with a length of 684 bp of this species. The results showed that the content of A + T was significantly higher than that of C + G, too. Five polymorphic loci were detected and six haplotypes with 2 unique haplotypes were defined. The nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of P. chinensis was 0.071% and 0.50, respectively, indicating a low genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of P. chinensis population showed a variation of decreasing firstly followed by increasing from 1995 to 2020. In summary, this paper understood the current situation and interannual variation characteristics of fishery resources in Xiaoqing River Estuary and its adjacent waters by the analysis on current data and historical data. Through the analysis, it was found the fishery resources structure had been changed in Xiaoqing River Estuary and its adjacent waters. The dominance and catch ratio of invertebrate taxa increased compare to fish species. We also evaluated the genetic diversity of three common economic species, namely, O. oratoria, P. trituberculatus and P. chinensis, and found their genetic diversity was affected in varying degrees. Among them, the genetic diversity of O. oratoria had maintained at a high level, suggesting the resource protection should be kept in mand of its development and utilization. While, it should be noticed that the genetic diversity of P. trituberculatus and P. chinensis was relatively low, so it was urgent to take reasonable measures to protect and restore the population size and genetic diversity of these two species.
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/30829
Collection中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘英. 小清河口邻近海域渔业资源结构及三种常见经济种遗传多样性特征[D]. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所,2022.
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