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恢复年限对黄河三角洲湿地植物多样性和群落稳定性的影响
Alternative TitleEffects of restoration age on plant diversity and community stability of wetlands in the Yellow River Delta
张奇奇
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor韩广轩
2022-05-15
Training institution中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Degree Name工程硕士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword滨海湿地 恢复年限 土壤理化性质 植物物种多样性 植物群落稳定性
Abstract受自然以及人为因素的影响,滨海湿地不断退化,生态服务价值不断下降。生态恢复通过改善土壤和水体环境条件,促进植物群落正向演替,遏制滨海湿地生态退化。但生态恢复耗时较长,且不同的恢复阶段可能呈现不同的变化趋势,因此恢复监测需要建立在较长的时间尺度上。然而目前关于滨海湿地生态恢复效果及其潜在机制的长期监测相对较少。本研究以黄河三角洲湿地生态修复后土壤和植被的恢复状况为研究对象,首先通过对典型生态修复工程的跟踪监测,探究恢复初期(1、2、3年)黄河三角洲湿地土壤(pH、电导率、速效养分、全量养分、碳氮磷生态化学计量比)、植被(群落基本数量特征、物种多样性、群落稳定性)等生态指标的演变动态,其次采用“空间代替时间”的方法,对黄河三角洲不同恢复年限湿地(0、3、7、10、19年)进行对比监测,在较长的时间尺度上研究黄河三角洲不同恢复年限湿地土壤理化性质、植物群落基本数量特征、植物物种多样性以及群落稳定性的变化规律及不同指标之间的相互作用机理。主要结果如下: (1)3年定位跟踪监测结果表明,恢复初期随着年限增加,土壤环境条件逐渐改善,部分植物群落特征也出现明显差异。恢复初期土壤电导率(EC)呈明显下降趋势,除速效氮外,其他土壤速效养分含量以及全量养分含量均逐年提高。此外,土壤C: N逐年减小,而土壤N: P则呈增大趋势,表明土壤氮素有效性不断增大。恢复初期植物群落盖度、高度、地上生物量随时间的增加而显著提高,但植物物种多样性以及植物群落稳定性指数却无明显变化趋势。 (2)不同恢复年限样地的对比监测结果表明,在近20年时间尺度上,随着恢复年限的增加,不同土壤指标对恢复年限的响应存在差异。恢复区土壤盐碱化状况显著改善,各恢复样地土壤pH、EC均小于CK样地,且EC随恢复年限的增加不断降低。随恢复年限的增加0-40 cm土层土壤速效磷、速效钾含量呈先减少后增加的趋势。土壤有机碳和总氮含量变化趋势相似,二者之间呈极显著正相关关系。研究区域土壤N: P较小,可能存在氮限制情况,但随恢复年限的增加0-10 cm表层土壤N: P逐渐增大,氮限制情况得到缓解。 (3)不同恢复年限样地对比监测结果表明,在近20年时间尺度上,植被状况随恢复年限的增加明显改善。随恢复年限的增加,植物群落盖度、高度均显著增大,植物群落优势种发生改变,其耐盐性逐渐降低。此外,柽柳(Tamarix chinensis)在群落中逐渐占据优势地位。植物群落Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数、Pielou均匀度指数和物种丰富度指数随恢复年限的增加均显著增大。进一步研究发现,土壤EC是导致不同恢复年限植物物种多样性差异的最重要的环境因子。同时,随恢复年限的增加,植物群落稳定性指数也不断增大。 综上所述,恢复年限对滨海湿地土壤理化性质和植物群落特征具有重要影响,恢复进程中土壤EC的变化是影响滨海湿地植物物种多样性的重要环境因素。长时间尺度上,随恢复年限的增加,滨海湿地土壤盐碱化状况明显改善,植物群落覆盖度、物种多样性指数和群落稳定性指数等也不断增大。但恢复初期受修复扰动的影响,滨海湿地植物群落恢复进程可能会出现波动甚至倒退的现象。因此,未来应重视恢复年限在生态恢复中的重要作用,在较长的时间尺度上开展滨海湿地保护与管理,为退化湿地的恢复预留充足的时间,从而达到最佳的恢复效果。
Other AbstractThe ecosystem services of coastal wetlands are degrading mainly due to climate change and human activities. Ecological restoration is an efficient method to reduce the degradation of the natural coastal wetland, which could promote the positive succession of vegetation communities by improving the conditions of soil and water. However, ecological restoration takes a long time and may show different trends in different restoration stages. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the restoration effects for a long-term monitoring. However, long-term monitoring of the effects of coastal wetland restoration projects and their underlying mechanism are still poorly explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different restoration ages on plant diversity and community stability of wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. Using the in-situ observation method, we investigated the dynamics of soil indicators (pH, electric conductivity, available nutrients, total nutrients, ecological stoichiometric ratio of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) and vegetation indicators (basic quantitative characteristics, species diversity and community stability) during the early stages of restoration (1, 2, 3 a) in a typical ecological restoration area. Additionally, using the method of space-for-time substitution, the effects of restoration ages (0, 3, 7, 10, 19 a; 0 means without restoration, CK) on soil physiochemical properties, quantitative characteristics of plant community and plant community stability were explored in the Yellow River Delta. Meanwhile, the interaction mechanism between soil properties and plant communities was analyzed. Our main results are as follows: (1) In the 3-year study, the soil environment gradually improved during the early stages of restoration, and some vegetation indicators also showed significant differences as the restoration proceeded. During the early stages of restoration, the soil electric conductivity (EC) decreased significantly. However, in addition to available nitrogen, the contents of available nutrients and total nutrients increased year by year. In addition, the C: N decreased continuously, while the N: P showed an increasing trend, indicating that the soil nitrogen availability was increasing. The coverage and height of plant community increased significantly as the restoration proceeded. However, there was no obvious change trend in plant species diversity and plant community stability index. (2) On a long time-scale (nearly 20 years), the soil salinization has been decreased significantly as the restoration processed in the restored wetlands. The soil pH and EC of each restored wetland were lower than those of CK, and the soil EC of each soil layer decreased with the increase of the restoration age. As the restoration proceeded, the contents of available phosphorus and available potassium in 0-40 cm soil layer decreased first and then increased. The changing trend of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content was similar, and there was a significant and positive correlation between them. The N꞉ P in the study area was low, and there may be nitrogen limitations. However, with the increase of restoration age, the N: P of 0-10 cm layer gradually increased, which indicated that the nitrogen limitation was alleviated. (3) On a long time-scale (nearly 20 years), the community coverage and height increased significantly with the increase of the restoration age. The dominant species of plant community changed and their salt tolerance decreased gradually. In addition, Tamarix chinensis gradually occupied a dominant position in the community. As the restoration proceeded, the Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, Pielou evenness index and species richness index of plant community increased continuously. Furthermore, soil EC was the main environmental factor that contributed to the difference in plant species diversity at different restoration ages. In addition, the stability index of plant community also increased with increasing restoration age. In summary, restoration age has an important effect on soil physiochemical properties and plant community characteristics of coastal wetland. The change of soil EC was the main environmental factor affecting plant species diversity. With the increase of restoration age, soil salinization of coastal wetland was gradually decreased, and the plant community coverage, species diversity and community stability index also increased on a long time-scale. However, the restoration disturbance during the early stages of restoration may have a negative effect on the vegetation restoration process. Therefore, the important role of restoration age in ecosystem recovery should be considered and long-term restoration should be carried out. Our result highlight that the sufficient time should be reserved for the restoration of degraded coastal wetland to achieve the best restoration effect.
Pages97
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/30825
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张奇奇. 恢复年限对黄河三角洲湿地植物多样性和群落稳定性的影响[D]. 中国科学院大学,2022.
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