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微咸水灌溉对滨海盐碱土水盐分布和金银花生长的影响
贺文君
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor韩广轩
2021-05-15
Training institution中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Name工学博士
Degree Discipline环境科学
Keyword滨海盐碱地 微咸水灌溉 水盐分布 金银花 黄河三角洲
Abstract滨海盐碱地作为我国重要的后备土地资源,具有较大的利用潜力和经济价值。滨海盐碱地存在地下水位浅且矿化度高、土壤盐含量高、土质粘重肥力低和淡水资源匮乏等问题。淡水资源短缺和土壤盐渍化是限制滨海盐碱地农业可持续发展的重要因素。微咸水灌溉对缓解淡水资源短缺、盐碱地改良及利用方面具有重要意义。基于以上研究背景,本文以金银花为研究作物,通过设置0 mm(T1)、40 mm(T2)、80 mm(T3)和120 mm(T4)共4个处理的微咸水灌溉野外控制试验及中度和重度等渗盐(150和300 mM)胁迫和干旱(19.3%和28% PEG-6000)胁迫室内水培试验,探讨了微咸水灌溉对滨海盐碱土水盐分布和土壤养分的影响,阐明了微咸水灌溉对金银花生长发育的影响机制,明确了影响盐碱地金银花产量的主要限制因子,揭示了微咸水灌溉下金银花品质的变化规律,对比分析了等渗干旱和盐胁迫下金银花的光合作用、光抑制和氧化损伤的差异,深入剖析其盐适应性。在此基础上建立了微咸水灌溉下滨海盐碱地金银花种植评价体系,并综合提出了滨海盐碱地金银花种植的最佳微咸水灌溉量。本研究主要结果如下: (1)随微咸水灌水量的增大,表层0~20 cm土壤含水量呈增加趋势,土壤含盐量和钠吸附比均呈逐渐减小趋势。随着灌水量增大土壤pH呈上升趋势,土壤表现出一定的碱化现象,土壤表层0~20 cm土壤电导率和pH呈显著的负相关。土壤水盐分布具有明显的季节变化,春季灌溉降低了土壤盐分含量,夏季强降雨对土壤盐分具有较好的淋洗作用。微咸水灌水量对表层0~20 cm土壤环境影响较大,对深层土壤影响较小。随微咸水灌水量的增加,土壤总碳和铵态氮均呈显著升高趋势,而硝态氮显著降低趋势。过高的灌水量造成了土壤速效钾的流失。 (2)与T1处理相比,微咸水灌溉显著提高了金银花的株高、基径、单株叶面积指数等生长性状和叶片叶绿素荧光及单株光合等光合特性。微咸水灌溉2年后,与T1处理相比,T2、T3和T4处理的干物质量分别增加了97.33%、408.87%、和782.09%。微咸水灌溉量与金银花单株光合速率呈二次曲线关系。微咸水灌溉改变了金银花生物量的分配格局,T1处理具有更大的根冠比和根质比。与T1相比,微咸水灌溉的金银花植株叶片光合性能更高,单株光合速率更大,这有助于金银花植株的生长和根系的发育,有利于其干物质量的积累,从而为金银花取得高产提供物质保障。 (3)与T1处理相比,微咸水灌溉显著增加了金银花产量和Na+累积量。pH是影响金银花单株产量的主要控制因子,可分别解释2个生长季内金银花单株产量74%和64%的变化。微咸水灌溉营造的高水、低盐、高pH及高水势的土壤环境一定程度上有利金银花产量的增加。本研究中,T3和T1处理下金银花绿原酸等酚类化合物含量更高,而T2处理下金银花绿原酸等酚类化合物含量最低。综合考虑产量、品质、叶片Na+累积量及叶片长期水分利用效率等指标,建立了滨海盐碱地金银花种植评价体系,并提出滨海盐碱地金银花种植的最佳微咸水灌溉量每次为80 mm。 (4)干旱诱导的光合速率下降幅度较大,表明金银花光合作用对干旱胁迫的敏感性高于等渗盐胁迫。与盐诱发的轻度光系统I(PSI)和光系统II(PSII)光抑制相反,在等渗干旱胁迫下PSI和PSII发生了严重的光抑制,表现为PSI和PSII的最大光化学效率显著降低,反应中心蛋白丰度显著减少。盐胁迫下PSI和PSII的相互作用对光合机构影响较小,这是由于盐胁迫下PSI和PSII之间的电子传递受的影响较小。与光系统光抑制一致,干旱胁迫导致的叶片脂质过氧化(MDA)、H2O2生成和电解质渗漏率的含量显著高于等渗盐胁迫,表明干旱导致的金银花严重的氧化胁迫。此外,主成分分析表明,与等渗干旱胁迫相比,金银花具有更高的盐适应性。盐胁迫下,金银花虽然积累了较多Na+,但避免了等渗干旱胁迫下叶片大量失水,从而有效保护了光合机构。
Other AbstractCoastal saline land is an important reserve land resource in China with great potential and economic value. There are some problems in coastal saline-alkali land, such as shallow groundwater level with high salinity, high soil salt content, low fertility of clay and heavy soil, lack of fresh water resources, etc. The shortage of fresh water resources and soil salinization are the main constraints of sustainable agricultural development in coastal saline lands. Brackish water irrigation plays an important role in alleviating the shortage of fresh water resources and improving and utilizing saline land. Based on the above background, four treatments of 0 mm (T1), 40 mm (T2), 80 mm (T3) and 120 mm (T4) were set to carry out the field experiment of brackish water irrigation, and the moderate and severe iso-osmotic salt (150 and 300 mM NaCl) and drought (19.3% and 28% PEG-6000) were used to stress with hydroponic protocol, aiming at explore the spatial and temporal distribution of water and salts and soil nutrients in coastal saline soils, elucidate the mechanism honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) growth and development under brackish water irrigation, clarify the main limiting factors affecting honeysuckle yield in saline soils, reveal the change pattern of honeysuckle quality under brackish water irrigation, deeply dissect its salt adaptability by contrasting photosynthesis, photoinhibition and oxidative damage. On this basis, the evaluation system of honeysuckle planting in coastal saline land was established, and the optimal irrigation amount of brackish water was proposed. The main results are as follows: (1) With the increase of brackish water irrigation, the water content of 0~20 cm soil increased, while both the soil salt content and sodium sorption ratio showed a downward trend. The soil pH increased significantly with increasing amount of irrigation water, and soil alkalinization exhibited. In the 0-20 cm soil surface layer, there was a significant negative correlation between soil conductivity and soil pH value. The distribution of soil water and salt showed obvious seasonal changes. Irrigation in spring reduced soil salt content, while the better leaching of soil salt driven by precipitation in summer. The influence of irrigation amount on soil environmental variation mainly occurred in 0-20 cm soil layer, but had no obvious influence on deep soil layer. Both total soil carbon and ammonium nitrogen showed a significant increasing trend with increasing the irrigation level, whereas nitrate nitrogen decreased tendency with increasing the irrigation level. Besides, excessive irrigation water caused loss of quick-acting potassium from the soil. (2) Compared with the T1 treatment, brackish water irrigation significantly improved the growth traits such as plant height, base diameter, single plant leaf area index and photosynthetic characteristics such as leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic rate of individual honeysuckle. After 2 years of brackish water irrigation, the dry matter mass of T2, T3, and T4 treatments increased by 97.33%, 408.87%, and 782.09%, respectively, compared to T1 treatment. The relationship between the amount of brackish water irrigation and photosynthetic rate of individual honeysuckle was conic. Brackish water irrigation changed the distribution pattern of honeysuckle biomass, and the root-shoot ratio and root biomass fraction of T1 were larger. To sum up, compared with T1, the leaves of honeysuckle plants irrigated with brackish water had higher photosynthetic performance and greater photosynthetic rate of individual, which was beneficial to the growth and root system development of honeysuckle plants and facilitated the dry matter accumulation of honeysuckle plants, thus providing material guarantee for the high yield of honeysuckle. (3) Yield and Na+ accumulation of honeysuckle was significantly increased by brackish water irrigation compared to T1 treatment. The pH was a major factor influencing the yield of honeysuckle per plant, which explained 74% and 64% of the variation in the yield during the two growing seasons, respectively. The high water content, low salinity, high pH and high water potential soil environment created by brackish water irrigation was to some extent favorable for the increase of honeysuckle yield. In this study, the content of phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid of honeysuckle under T3 and T1 treatments was higher, while the content of phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid of honeysuckle under T2 treatment was the lowest. In conclusion, considering the yield, quality, Na+ accumulation in leaves and long-term water use efficiency of leaves, the evaluation system of honeysuckle planting in coastal saline land was established, and it was proposed that the best brackish water irrigation amount for honeysuckle planting in coastal saline land was 80 mm each time. (4) Photosynthesis was more susceptible to drought stress than iso-osmotic salt stress in honeysuckle according to drought-induced greater decrease in photosynthetic rate. In contrast to salt-induced mild PSⅡ and PSI photoinhibition, severe photosystem II (PSⅡ) and photosystem I (PSI) photoinhibition arose upon iso-osmotic drought stress, indicated by greater decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ and PSI and remarkable loss of their reaction center proteins. However, PSⅡ and PSI interaction hardly contributed to salt stability of photosynthetic apparatus because of salt-induced finite restriction on electron flow from PSⅡ to PSI. Consistent with photosystems photoinhibition, leaf lipid peroxidation, H2O2 production and electrolyte leakage were elevated much greater by drought stress than iso-salt stress, confirming drought-induced severe oxidative stress in honeysuckle. Furthermore, the principal components analysis comprehensively showed higher salt adaptability in honeysuckle due to larger cluster separation upon drought stress than iso-osmotic salt stress. As an apparent reason, honeysuckle could prevent drought-induced tremendous leaf water loss upon iso-osmotic salt stress, and had a capacity to dispose accumulated Na+. Therefore, honeysuckle resembles halophytes in this respect and seems appropriate for planting in coastal saline land.
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学::生态学
Pages144
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/29345
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出_学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
贺文君. 微咸水灌溉对滨海盐碱土水盐分布和金银花生长的影响[D]. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所. 中国科学院大学,2021.
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