YIC-IR  > 中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出
黄河三角洲互花米草入侵对大型底栖动物的生态影响
Alternative TitleEcological effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on macrobenthic community in the Yellow River Delta
姜少玉
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李宝泉
2021-05-07
Training institution中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Grantor中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Place of Conferral山东烟台
Degree Name工程硕士
Degree Discipline生物工程
Keyword黄河三角洲,互花米草入侵,沉积物,大型底栖动物,食物网
Abstract黄河三角洲是中国暖温带最年轻、最广阔、保存最完整的新生滨海湿地生态系统,不仅蕴含着丰富的自然资源,而且是鸟类迁徙的重要“中转站”及许多濒危鸟类的重要栖息地及繁殖地,在中国乃至世界上都因其特殊性而具有重要的生态地位。同时,黄河三角洲具有原生性、脆弱性及稀有性等生态特征,生态系统较为脆弱,易受人类活动及外来物种干扰。为保护滩涂,促淤造陆,东营市相关部门于1990年前后引种了互花米草,一段时间内在黄河三角洲潮间带滩涂保护上取得了一定生态效益,但近几年互花米草在当地的迅速蔓延,严重威胁到本地区的生物多样性及生态系统的稳定性。大型底栖动物是滨海湿地生态系统的重要组成部分,其群落结构的变化不仅可以反映滨海湿地的生态演变过程,还可以评估滨海湿地的生态健康状况。本研究以大型底栖动物为研究对象,在黄河三角洲互花米草的不同入侵年限区域,采集沉积物间隙水、沉积物、大型底栖动物及其潜在食源,包括盐地碱蓬、浮游植物和底栖微藻等,分析互花米草入侵对入侵地沉积物理化性质、大型底栖动物群落结构及底栖食物网结构的时序影响,以期为黄河三角洲自然保护区的保护和管理以及互花米草的治理提供数据支撑和理论依据。主要结果如下: 1.互花米草入侵在一定程度上改变了沉积物理化性质,且不同入侵年代和不同季节的沉积物理化性质存在显著性差异。未入侵区沉积物中的铵盐含量为入侵区2倍,但入侵区表层沉积物总氮及总有机碳含量显著高于未入侵区,这是由于互花米草有丰富的底上和底下生物量;随入侵时间延长沉积物间隙水中硝酸盐含量增加;由于随入侵时间延长,互花米草群落植株密度降低,进而使内源有机质输入减少,导致沉积物中总氮及总有机碳含量下降;在不同季节上,春季表层沉积物中总氮及总有机碳含量较夏季和秋季高,秋季间隙水中溶解无机氮以及磷酸盐含量显著高于春季和夏季,但硅酸盐在不同季节差异不显著。 2.互花米草入侵在影响底栖生境的基础上,改变了大型底栖动物物种组成。由于互花米草发达的根系限制了活动能力较强的蟹类等大型底栖动物的生长,故与未入侵区相比,入侵区大型底栖动物物种数降低,未入侵区共获13种大型底栖动物,而入侵12年区共获6种,且优势种逐渐变为摄食沉积物及碎屑的耐物种;未入侵区大型底栖动物总平均丰度高419 ind./m2,总平均生物量最高的区是互花米草入侵2年区为57.04 g/m2。随着互花米草入侵年限的增加,大型底栖动物逐渐被个体较小的物种替代。互花米草入侵对大型底栖动物群落造成中等甚至严重干扰。 3.互花米草入侵影响和改变了大型底栖动物的食源组成,入侵区互花米草及其碎屑成为了大型底栖动物的重要食源之一,甚至超过了底栖微藻的平均贡献率,这是由于互花米草含有较低的C/N及单宁含量,利于底栖动物摄食。此外,互花米草入侵初期会增加大型底栖动物食物网结构的复杂性,但随互花米草入侵年限延长,底栖食物网复杂性降低。 综上,黄河三角洲互花米草入侵对入侵区沉积物理化性质带来了不同程度的影响,同时也改变了大型底栖动物群落及底栖食物网结构,但在不同入侵阶段的影响存在差异。随着互花米草入侵年限增加,黄河三角洲区域会逐渐形成单一的互花米草群落,大型底栖动物食源可能会由多有机碳来源逐渐转变为单一有机碳来源,对生态系统的稳定性产生不可逆的影响。
Other AbstractThe Yellow River Delta (YRD), the youngest, extensive and well-preserved wetland, is a typical newborn coastal wetland ecosystem in the warm-temperate zone of eastern China. The YRD can serve as a migration station in the East Asia-Australia bird migration route, and a wintering habitat and breeding farm for migration birds due to its rich natural resources. Therefore, the YRD has unique environmental and biological features, showing its essential international function in the wetland system. Meanwhile, the YRD possesses the characteristics of primitiveness, fragility and rarity, making it relatively fragile and vulnerable to interference from human activities and exotic species invasion. Spartina alterniflora was introduced into the YRD in 1990 to protect mudflats and promote land siltation, which received certain ecological benefits during the following period. However, it spread out rapidly in recent years, posing severe threats to local biodiversity and the stability of the wetland ecosystem. As the critical component of the coastal wetland, macrobenthos can be a proxy to indicate the ecological process of the coastal wetland, and assess the ecological quality of the coastal wetland by the changes of community structure. We collected biotic and abiotic samples across seasons in different invasion years of S. alterniflora in the YRD, including sediment pore-water, sediments, macrobenthos and their potential food sources, to analyze the changes in sedimentary physicochemical properties, the structure of the macrobenthic community, and the benthic food web under the stress of S. alterniflora invasion. Present work aimed to provide a scientific basis for protecting and managing the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve and controlling S. alterniflora scientifically. Three main results are as follows: (1) Invasion of S. alterniflora significantly changed the physicochemical properties of sediment in different seasons and invasion years. The content of ammonium in the non-invasion area was twice higher than that in the invasion area. However, the content of organic matter in surface sediment was higher in the invasion area because S. alterniflora had abundant aboveground and underground biomass. With the increase of the invasive years, the content of nitrate was getting higher, but the organic matter content was declining because the density of S. alterniflora decreased, contributing to endogenous organic matter input reduced. The content of organic matter in surface sediment was higher in spring, and the dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate in pore-water were higher in autumn than in spring and summer, but the contents of silicate in different seasons were of no differences. (2) Invasion of S. alterniflora changed the benthic habitat then affected the macrobenthic community structure. Compared to the non-invasive area, the species number decreased because S. alterniflora well-developed roots limited the growth of organisms with stronger active ability, such as crabs. The species numbers were 13 and 6 in the non-invasion and the 12-year invasion area. The dominant species changed to pollution-resistant species feeding on sediment and debris within the invasive area. The abundance was the highest in the non-invasion area, which was 417 ind./m2. The highest biomass value (57.04 g/m2) of macrobenthos happened in the 2-year invasion area. With the increase of the invasive years, the macrobenthic community was dominated by those species with small body sizes. The macrobenthic community was moderately or even seriously suffered from disturbances after S. alterniflora invasion. (3) The invasion of S. alterniflora changed the food sources of macrobenthos. S. alterniflora and its debris became essential food sources for some benthic animals because the C/N and tannins content of S. alterniflora were lower. Besides, S. alterniflora invasion also increased the complexity of the benthic food web within the early invasion area, but this complexity declined with the increase of the invasive year. In conclusion, S. alterniflora invasion changed the physicochemical properties of the sediment to a certain extent, the macrobenthic community structure, and the structure of benthic food web. Different invasive years of S. alterniflora caused different impacts on the local wetland system. With the increase of the invasive year, an uncomplicated community dominated by S. alterniflora gradually emerged in the YRD. The organic carbon food sources for macrobenthos experienced a shift from multiple sources to a single source, which resulted in an irreversible impact on the stability of the ecosystem.
Pages80
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/29339
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
姜少玉. 黄河三角洲互花米草入侵对大型底栖动物的生态影响[D]. 山东烟台. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所,2021.
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