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菊芋全粉在凡纳滨对虾饲料中的应用效果研究
Alternative TitleApplication Effects of Jerusalem Artichoke Powder
孟现尧
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor衣悦涛
2020-05-22
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name工程硕士
Degree Discipline生物工程
Keyword凡纳滨对虾 菊芋全粉 地衣芽孢杆菌 肠道微生物 免疫力和生长性
Abstract本论文将菊芋全粉作为凡纳滨对虾饲料的益生元成分,应用于凡纳滨对虾的人工养殖中,研究了菊芋全粉对凡纳滨对虾生长、免疫力及肠道菌群的影响, 同时考察了对菊芋全粉与地衣芽孢杆菌复合后在凡纳滨对虾养殖中的协同促进效果。 主要研究内容及结论如下: 1. 菊芋全粉对凡纳滨对虾的影响研究 在凡纳滨对虾的基础饲料中添加菊芋全粉,营养成分分析结果显示,粗蛋白、粗脂肪和灰分含量分别为 42%、 4%、 16%, 可以满足对虾的生长需求。 实验分组如下: 对照 A 组(基础饲料),实验 B 组(0.5%菊芋全粉),实验 C 组(1.0%菊芋全粉),实验 D 组(1.5%菊芋全粉)。 饲养四周后,对凡纳滨对虾的肠道微生物组成及丰度、免疫力和生长性能进行分析。结果表明: (1)补充菊芋全粉不会改变凡纳滨对虾肠道微生物的多样性, 但是各菊芋全粉实验组凡纳滨对虾的肠道微生物同源性更强。0.5%菊芋全粉可以明显提高芽孢杆菌相对丰度(P<0.05);补充 1.0%和 1.5%菊芋全粉可以显著降低对虾肠道弧菌数量,提高红杆菌、黄杆菌等有益菌的相对丰度(P<0.05), 这些有益菌都对宿 主生长免疫具有促进效果。 (2) 0.5%菊芋全粉可以明显提高凡纳滨对虾总抗氧化能力; 1.0%菊芋全粉可以显著提高凡纳滨对虾吞噬活性、总抗氧化能力和溶菌酶活性等免疫指标(P<0.05)以及凡纳滨对虾的饲料利用率; 1.5%菊芋全粉可以提高凡纳滨对虾血细胞数目、总抗氧化能力和溶菌酶活性,凡纳滨对虾的最终平均体重、特殊生长率、增重率也有显著提高(P<0.05)。 2. 菊芋全粉和地衣芽孢杆菌对凡纳滨对虾协同促进效果的研究 将基础饲料中加入菊芋全粉和地衣芽孢杆菌制得实验饲料,实验分组如下:对照 A2 组(基础饲料),实验 B2 组(1.0%菊芋全粉),实验 C2 组(108CFU/g 地 衣芽孢杆菌),实验 D2 组(1.0%菊芋全粉+108CFU/g 地衣芽孢杆菌)。 四周饲养实验结束后, 对凡纳滨对虾的肠道微生物组成及相对丰度、免疫力和生长性能进行分析。实验结果表明: (1) 各实验组对肠道微生物的多样性没有显著性影响(P>0.05), 各实验组之间的肠道菌群同源性更强, 与对照 A2 组差异性更大。 实验 D2 组与实验 B2 组 相比, 尽管对红杆菌、黄杆菌等有益菌的促进作用降低了, 但对弧菌和交替单胞菌等有害菌的促进也降低了, 这证明了菊芋全粉和地衣芽孢杆菌确实具有协同效果。 (2) 实验 D2 组在血细胞数目、呼吸爆发等免疫指标表现出更显著的促进效果,该结果证明了菊芋全粉和地衣芽孢杆菌的协同促进效果; 但是菊芋全粉和地衣芽孢杆菌对凡纳滨对虾的生长性能没有协同促进效果(P>0.05)。 研究结果表明在一定范围内,菊芋全粉可以降低凡纳滨对虾肠道弧菌相对丰度,并促进对虾生长性能; 饲料中补充 1.0%或者 1.5%菊芋全粉可显著调节凡纳滨肠道菌群、 提高免疫力和生长性能; 同时 1.0%菊芋全粉和地衣芽孢杆菌联合使用在调节凡纳滨对虾肠道菌群和提高免疫力方面具有良好的协同促进效果。本研究为菊芋全粉在凡纳滨对虾养殖中的应用提供了理论和应用依据。
Other AbstractIn this dissertation, the Jerusalem artichoke powder(JAP) was used as feed additive in the artificial cultivation of Litopenaeus vannamei to investigate the effects of Jerusalem artichoke powder on the growth, immunity and intestinal flora of Litopenaeus vannamei. Meanwhile, the synergistic effects of Jerusalem artichoke powder and Bacillus licheniformis on Litopenaeus vannamei were studied. The main research contents and conclusions of the dissertation are as follows: 1. The effects of Jerusalem artichoke powder on Litopenaeus vannamei The Jerusalem artichoke powder was added into the basic diet, the nutrient analysis results showed that the nutrients include 42% crude protein, 4% crude fat and 16% ash respectively, which could meet the growth needs of prawns. The experimental groups were as follows: Control group A (basic diet), Experimental group B (0.5% JAP), Experimental group C (1.0% JAP), and Experimental group D (1.5% JAP). After four weeks of feeding experiment, the composition and abundance of intestinal microbial, immunity and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) JAP supplement did not change the intestinal microflora diversity of prawns, but the intestinal microorganisms of the experimental group in all JAP group were more homologous. 0.5% JAP significantly increased the relative abundance of bacillus (P<0.05). 1.0% and 1.5% JAP can significantly reduce the number of Vibrio in the intestines of prawns and increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Erythrobacter and Flavobacterium. Which could promote the host growth immunity. (2) 0.5% JAP could significantly improve the total antioxidant capacity of prawns (P<0.05). 1.0% JAP of dietary can significantly improve the phagocytic activity, total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme activity and related immune indexes, as well as the feed utilization rate of prawns. 1.5% JAP could improve the blood cell number, total antioxidant capacity and lysozyme activity of the prawns, while the final average weight, special growth rate and weight gain rate of the prawns were also significantly increased (P<0.05). 2. The effects of JAP and Bacillus licheniformis on Litopenaeus vannamei The JAP and Bacillus licheniformis were add to the basic diet to prepare feed. The experimental groups were as follows: Control group A2 (basic diet), Experimental group B2 (1.0% JAP), Experimental group C2 (108CFU/g Bacillus licheniformis), and Experimental group D2 (1.0% JAP+108CFU/g Bacillus licheniformis). After four weeks of feeding experiment, the composition and relative abundance of intestinal microbial, immunity and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei were measured. The experimental results indicated that: (1) The experimental groups had no significant effect on the diversity of intestinal microbes (P> 0.05). The intestinal flora homology between the experimental groups was stronger, and the difference were greater than the control A2 group. Compared with the experiment B2 group, although the experiment D2 group promotion effect on some beneficial bacteria such as Erythrobacter and Flavobacterium were reduced, but the relative abundance of harmful bacteria such as Vibrio and Alternomonas were reduced too, which proved that the synergistic effect between JAP and Bacillus licheniformis. (2) The experimental group D2 showed a more significant promotion effect on immune indicators such as the number of blood cells and respiratory bursts. Performance has no synergistic effect (P> 0.05). The results show that within a certain range, JAP could reduce the relative abundance of Vibrio intestinal tract of Litopenaeus vannamei and promote the growth performance of prawns. Adding 1.0% or 1.5% JAP in the feed could significantly improve the growth performance, immunity and regulate intestinal flora balance of prawns. Meanwhile, the combination uses of 1.0% JAP and Bacillus licheniformis showed better synergistic effects. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of JAP in prawns cultivation.
Subject Area微生物学 ; 水产养殖学 ; 水产饲料学
MOST Discipline Catalogue工学::生物工程
Pages78
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/24239
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出_学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孟现尧. 菊芋全粉在凡纳滨对虾饲料中的应用效果研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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