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渤海三大海湾石油烃-重金属的污染特征、来源解析及生态风险
邹艳梅
Subtype硕士
2020-05-27
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Name工程硕士
Keyword石油烃 重金属 复合污染 空间分布 生态风险
Abstract环渤海湾被称为“北方黄金海岸”,同时油气资源丰富,油气勘探开发、石油运输量和运输频率逐年增大,加上环渤海地区重工业沿岸聚集,这使得渤海海域的污染不断加剧。海洋沉积物作为污染物的重要载体,可以指示海洋生态系统的污染状况。石油烃与重金属作为广泛存在的污染物经常共存,研究海洋沉积物中石油烃和重金属的空间分布及其影响因素,有助于了解人类活动对海洋环境变化的影响,可为海洋环境保护和修复提供科技支撑和理论基础。 本文通过对渤海三大海湾表层沉积物样品理化性质、石油烃以及重金属含量进行分析,研究了莱州湾、渤海湾和辽东湾中的正构烷烃、多环芳烃(PAHs)以及重金属(Pb、V、Cr、Mn、Fe、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、As、Cd)的空间分布规律并解析其污染源,对比其污染水平和生态风险程度,分析沿岸的经济发展方式对海洋沉积环境的影响。进一步通过探究沉积物理化性质、石油烃以及重金属之间的相关性,探讨两种污染物的相互作用。研究结果表明: (1)渤海总有机碳(TOC)的含量范围为0.11-1.82%,总氮(TN)的范围为0.01-0.11%,渤海湾含量最高,莱州湾最低。C、N元素的线性相关性分析指示,莱州湾相关性最高,可能受陆源有机质输入影响较大;辽东湾内有机质来源复杂,相关性不明显。 (2)莱州湾、渤海湾、辽东湾内沉积物正构烷烃总含量的均值分别为1117.81、482.27和716.48 ng/g,所有站位均未超联合国环境规划署标准,说明正构烷烃污染水平较轻。通过对轻重烃比值(LMW/HMW)、n-C16指数、天然正构烷烃比率(NAR)、碳优势指数(CPI)等特征参数分析,结果说明三大海湾中正构烷烃属于陆源、海源有机质以及石油类污染物混合输入。通过其相关性分析发现,辽东湾受陆源植物正构烷烃输入影响较大,而渤海湾中石油类污染物的输入比重最高。此外,类异戊二烯烷烃参数Pr/Ph<0.8可以指示其还原环境。萜烷和甾烷参数同样验证了海域中存在石油烃污染物。 (3)莱州湾、渤海湾和辽东湾内沉积物PAHs总含量的均值依次为952.15、1000.91和347.89 ng/g。渤海湾和莱州湾部分海域PAHs达到中度甚至重度污染水平。各环数PAHs的比重以及同分异构体比值分析结果显示,莱州湾和渤海湾PAHs属于石油和燃烧源的混合来源,而辽东湾PAHs中生物质和煤高温燃烧来源为主导贡献。16种PAHs单体中高分子量PAHs的污染程度优于低分子量;辽东湾的污染程度优于莱州湾和渤海湾。BaP毒性当量(TEQBaP)均未超过规定浓度,说明PAHs目前处于安全水平内。 (4)三大海湾沉积物中As、Cr、Cu和Cd元素均出现超标现象,辽东湾重金属含量相对较低。除Pb、As和Cd,其余元素之间相关较高,指示了相同或相似的来源。Pb处于清洁水平,Cr、Ni、Cu的Zn的污染水平较轻,As和Cd的污染相对较为严重。同时Cd、As的潜在生态风险最大,Zn的生态风险最小,大部分海域的综合潜在生态风险达到了中等水平。 (5)辽东湾中石油烃与黏、粉粒相关性最高,可能因为石油烃受陆源输入影响最大。三大海湾内多数金属元素与TOC成正相关,莱州湾达到了显著性水平;而渤海湾中重金属与粒径的相关性最差,可能受人类活动影响较大。莱州湾和辽东湾中部分重金属与高分子量PAHs相关性较高,可能与高分子量有机物对重金属的吸附量大有关;渤海湾中石油烃与重金属的相关性不高,可能因为有机污染物和重金属的主要来源方式不同。 前人对渤海沉积物中污染物多进行分类研究,对于多种污染物的复合污染研究较少。基于此,本研究同时对莱州湾、渤海湾和辽东湾三个区域进行对比性研究,分析石油烃与重金属之间的相互作用,探讨不同的经济开发活动对海洋沉积环境的影响,以期为石油烃-重金属复合污染的探究提供一定的理论基础。研究结果对于我国《渤海综合治理攻坚战行动计划》顺利实施提供一定科学数据和科技支撑。
Other AbstractThe Bohai Rim is known as the "Northern Gold Coast". At the same time, oil and gas resources are abundant. Oil-gas exploration and exploitation, oil transportation volume and frequency are increasing year by year, and the accumulation of heavy industries along the coast has caused the marine pollution in the Bohai Sea to intensify. As an important carrier of pollutants, marine sediments can indicate the pollution status of marine ecosystems. Petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals often coexist. Study on the spatial distribution and their influencing factors of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in sediments are helpful to understand the impact of human activities on changes in the marine environment, and can provide scientific and technological support for marine environmental protection and restoration. In this paper, the physical and chemical propertie, petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals content of surface sediment samples from the three bays of Bohai Sea were analyzed. The spatial distribution and sources of n-alkanes, PAHs and heavy metals (Pb, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Cd) in Laizhou Bay, Bohai Bay and Liaodong Bay were studied. In addition, the comparative analysis of the pollution levels and ecological risks in the three regions were made, and the impact of coastal economic development on the marine sedimentary environment were analyzed. The correlation between sedimentary physicochemical properties, petroleum hydrocarbons, and heavy metals was explored, and the interaction of the two pollutants was discussed. Research indicates: (1) The content range of total organic carbon (TOC) in the Bohai Sea is 0.11-1.82%, and the range of total nitrogen (TN) is 0.01-0.11%. Bohai Bay has the highest content and Laizhou Bay has the lowest content. The linear correlation analysis of C and N elements indicate that Laizhou Bay has the highest correlation, which may be caused by the input of terrestrial organic matter. The source of organic matter in Liaodong Bay is more complex, and the correlation is not obvious. (2) The average values of total n-alkanes contents in Laizhou Bay, Bohai Bay and Liaodong Bay were 1117.81, 482.27 and 716.48 ng / g dw, respectively. None of the stations exceeded the UNEP standard, indicating that the level of n-alkanes pollution was relatively low in studied area. In three bays, the analysis of LMW / HMW, n-C16 index, NAR, CPI and other characteristic parameters show that the n-alkanes in the three bays belong to the mixed input of terrestrial, marine organic matter and petroleum pollutants. Through the correlation analysis of the characteristic parameters, we found that Liaodong Bay is greatly affected by the input of terrestrial plants, while the input proportion of petroleum pollutants in the Bohai Bay is the highest. In addition, the isoprenoid alkane parameter, Pr / Ph <0.8, can indicate reducing environment. The terpene and sterane parameters further verified the presence of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in the sea. (3) The average values of total PAHs in Laizhou Bay, Bohai Bay, and Liaodong Bay were 952.15, 1000.91, and 347.89 ng / g dw, respectively. PAHs in part of the Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay reached moderate or even severe pollution levels. The specific gravity of each ring PAHs and the isomer ratios were analyzed. The PAHs in the Laizhou Bay and Bohai Bay sediments are a mixed source of petroleum and combustion sources, while biomass and coal high-temperature combustion sources in the Liaodong Bay PAHs dominate the contribution. The pollution degree of high molecular weight PAHs in 16 kinds monomers are better than low molecular weight, the pollution degree of Liaodong Bay is better than Laizhou Bay and Bohai Bay, and its potential ecological risk level of PAHs is the lightest. TEQBaP did not exceed the SQGs concentration, indicating that PAHs are currently at a safe level. (4) The As, Cr, Cu, and Cd in the sediments of the three major bays all exceeded the standard, and the heavy metals content in Laizhou Bay and Bohai Bay were relatively low. Except for Pb, As and Cd, the other elements are highly correlated, indicating the same or similar origin. In the Bohai Sea, Pb is at a clean level, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn pollution levels are relatively lighter, As and Cd pollution are relatively serious. At the same time, the potential ecological risks of Cd and As are the largest, and the ecological risks of Zn are the smallest. The comprehensive potential ecological risks in most sea areas have reached a medium level. (5) Petroleum hydrocarbons in the Liaodong Bay have the highest correlation with clay and powder particles. It is possible that the influence of land-based source input is the greatest. Most metal elements in the three bays are positively correlated with TOC, and Laizhou Bay has reached a significant level, while the correlation between heavy metals and particle size in the Bohai Bay is the lowest, which may be greatly affected by human activities. Some heavy metal elements in Laizhou Bay and Liaodong Bay are highly correlated with high molecular weight PAHs, which may be related to the large amount of heavy metals adsorbed by high molecular weight organics. The correlation between petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the Bohai Bay are not high, which may be related to the main sources of organic pollutants and heavy metals are different. Based on previous studies of the classification of pollutants in the Bohai Sea, there are few studies on the composite pollution of various pollutants in the sediments. This study analyzes the interaction between petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals through Laizhou Bay, Bohai Bay and Liaodong Bay at same time, and explores the impact of different economic development activities on the marine sedimentary environment. It is hoped to provide a certain theoretical basis for the exploration of petroleum hydrocarbon-heavy metal composite pollution, and provide data and scientific and technological support for the smooth implementation of the "Bohai Comprehensive Governance Action Plan".
MOST Discipline Catalogue工学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/24226
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出_学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
邹艳梅. 渤海三大海湾石油烃-重金属的污染特征、来源解析及生态风险[D]. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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