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烟台近海大型底栖动物群落特征及底栖环境质量评价
王全超
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李宝泉
2013-05-18
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline环境科学
Keyword烟台近海 大型底栖动物 群落特征 底栖健康评价 Ambi M-ambi
Other Abstract

本文研究目的是掌握烟台近岸海域大型底栖动物群落现状,分析群落演替特征,探讨引发群落演替的原因,并在此基础上利用底栖动物指数法对烟台近岸底栖环境健康状况进行评价。分析所用生物样品采集于20104月、8月、11月和20113月(春、夏、秋、冬),采样区域为烟台近岸海域,包括四十里湾、套子湾和芝罘湾。分析指标包括物种组成、优势种、生物量、丰度、物种多样性和群落聚类特征,并在此基础上分析烟台近岸海域大型底栖动物群落时空变化特征及物种多样性,并与历史资料比较分析群落演替情况。生物指数法则是根据底栖动物群落中不同物种对环境敏感度的不同,采用国际上目前较流行的AMBIM-AMBI指数评价烟台近海底栖环境健康状况。

四次调查共获大型底栖动物175种,其中优势类群为多毛类77种,其次为软体动物46种和甲壳动物38种,棘皮动物仅发现7种,其他7种。比较发现四个季节出现种类数量存在差异,其中秋季最多113种;冬季次之101种;夏季84种,春季最少72种。群落中的优势种组成季节间差异较小,基本保持稳定,短叶索沙蚕和不倒翁虫为4个季度共有优势种。与历史资料相比较,烟台近海大型底栖动物有小型化趋势,即小型多毛类取代了个体较大的棘皮动物。

烟台近海2010年至2011年平均生物量为16.72 g/m2,季节间生物量存在差异,夏、秋两季的平均生物量(分别为25.09 g/m225.76 g/m2)分别高于春、冬两季的平均生物量(分别为6.04 g/m29.97 g/m2)。生物量空间分布显示,夏季和秋季的生物量空间分布变异较大,在离岸较近海区出现不同程度的高值区,而春、冬两季的生物量空间分布变化较少。烟台近海年平均丰度为1022 ind/m2,季节间的差异表现为春季最高683 ind/m2;夏季次之1128 ind/m2;秋季1027 ind/m2;冬季最低1251 ind/m2。丰度的空间分布四个季度整体均显示出:四十里湾偏东海区的丰度高于其他海区。与相邻海域比较,烟台近海大型底栖动物群落的三个多样性指数值均相对较低,丰富度指数(D)的年平均值为2.38;均匀度指数(J)的年平均值为0.73多样性指数(H’)的年平均值为1.98

四个航次群落结构特征与底质、水深和人类活动的影响程度有密切关系。即烟台近海各航次多数站位可以归为一个群组,并且表征种重叠较大;同时,群落结构也表现随深度变化的趋势,即位于湾口外较深海区的1234站四个航次均具有较高的相似性,而湾内站位则呈现相应的群组,该趋势在夏季最为明显。此外,由于大沽夹河河口区和芝罘港内分别受入海河流携带的陆源污染物和船舶运输等人类活动干扰,大型底栖动物群落呈现不同的组成特征。

AMBIM-AMBI分析显示,烟台近海的底栖生态健康大多处于轻微干扰状态,总体上呈现中等良好的生态健康状况,但是大沽夹河河口与芝罘港内调查站的结果表明,该区由于受人类活动引起的污染和富营养化的影响,底栖环境健康质量整体较差,并且已经影响到群落组成特征。

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The aim of this paper was to know the current status of macrobenthos community in coastal water of Yantai, and to analyze the community succession as well as the reason lead to the succession. Four surveys from the four seasons in 2010 April(Spring), 2010 August(summmer), 2010 November (Autumn) and 2011 March (Winter) were conducted at 30 sampling sites in Taozi Bay, Sishili Bay and Zhifu Bay. The following indices and methods were adopted to study the community structure, namely, Dominance index, Diversity index, Richness index, Evenness index, Bray-Curtis similarity analysis and MDS ordination analysis. Besides, AMBI and M-AMBI were adopted to evaluate the benthic ecological health of benthic ecosystem.

A total of 175 macrobenthic species were collected in this research region during four surveys, of which, the dominant group was Polychaeta, 77 species be identified , followed by Mollusk 46 , Crustacean 38 , Echinodermata 7 , and the rest 7 species be of other benthic groups. The species composition were different in four season, e.g. 72 species be identified in spring, 84 in summer, 113 in atumn, and 101 in winter. Dominant species were almost same during four surveys, e. g., Lumbrineris latreilli and Sternaspisscutata be founded in all seasons. Compared to the results of 1990s, the macrobenthos community had undergone some succession, namely, the ratio of dominant group in the community changed by increased Polychate and decreased Echinodermata.

The average biomass of the four seasons was 16.72 g/m2, with the following seasonal changes:  autumn (25.76 g/m2) > summer (25.09 g/m2) > winter (9.97 g/m2) > spring (6.04 g/m2) . The spatial distribution pattern show that the biomass showed greatly spatial variability in summer and autumn, and less variability in spring and winter. The average abundance of the four seasons was 1022 ind/m2, with the following seasonal changes: winter (1251 ind/m2) > summer (1128 ind/m2) > autumn (1027 ind/m2) > spring (683 ind/m2). The spatial distribution of abundance in the eastern of Sishili Bay was slightly higher than that of other areas. Comparing to the adjacent water area, the average value of three biodiversity indices were relatively low, Richness index 2.30, Evenness index 0.70 and Shannon-Wiener index 1.91.

According to the analysis of Bray-Curtis similarity cluster and MDS ordination , the community structure of macrobenthos was closely related to sediment type, depth and different kinds of anthropogenic activities in the study region. Due to the different types of stress, the spatial structure form several groups, especially in the estuary of Dagujia river and the area of Zhifu harbor.

Based on AMBI and M-AMBI indices, we can conclude that the benthic ecological health of coastal water in Yantai was slightly disturbed, and the ecological health was in “good” quality on the whole. However, some water area, especially in the estuary of Dagujia river and the sea area of Zhifu harbor, the benthic ecological status was in the condition of moderately disturbed to heavily disturbed, which might resulted from the stress of different anthropogenic actives, including waste discharge, aquaculture and fishing, harbor building and shipping.
Subject Area环境科学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/6356
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出_学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王全超. 烟台近海大型底栖动物群落特征及底栖环境质量评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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