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Alternative TitleApplication of circuit theory in the study of wetland landscape connectivity in the Yellow River Delta
Thesis Advisor毕晓丽
Training institution中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Keyword电路理论 景观连通性 围垦 油井 黄河三角洲
Abstract景观连通性是生物多样性保护和生态系统结构、功能稳定的关键。黄河三角洲湿地具有丰富的生物多样性和很高的生态系统服务功能。近几十年来,受高强度人类活动影响,三角洲湿地破碎化明显,连通性降低。研究黄河三角洲湿地景观连通性及其影响因素,有助于我们对景观连通性变化机制的理解,并能有效识别维持景观连通的关键要素,为黄河三角洲湿地精细化保护与恢复管理提供科学 依据。 以黄河三角洲湿地为研究对象,选择 1991 年和 2020 年作为湿地开发的关键时间节点,运用遥感、GIS 及电路理论模型等技术方法,采用“源地识别—阻力面构建—廊道提取”的思路,开展如下工作:(1)基于高分辨率遥感影像,目视解译 1991 和 2020 年的土地利用类型(3 个一级类,19 个二级类,36 个三级类),同时提取影响该区湿地连通性的 2 个主要因素,即围垦和采油场;(2)利用Conefor 软件分析景观结构,根据“属性—结构”的框架识别并提取生态源地 73个;(3)参考相关文献和夜间灯光指数构建阻力面;(4)利用 Circuitscape 电路 理论模型计算 1991 年和 2020 年表征湿地物种运动的潜在生态廊道和最小成本路径(Least cost path, LCP),分析围垦活动和采油场建设对湿地景观连通性的影响;(5)提取并分析关键生态节点和障碍区的空间特征,提出黄河三角洲湿地精细化保护和恢复管理的建议。结果如下: (1)1991 年至 2020 年自然湿地面积减少 787.20 km2,人工湿地和非湿地面积显著增加;除黄河三角洲国家级自然保护区外,自然湿地破碎化明显。三角洲自然湿地的可能连通性指数(PC)由 0.1801 下降到 0.0464。 (2)近 30 年间,7 种主要围垦类型面积共增加 814.26 km2。三角洲中部和西部的围垦活动最为突出,以草本沼泽和灌丛湿地围垦为主。采油井增加了 8869处,主要分布在三角洲中部和东部工矿区。其中,保护区内共建 325 处采油井,集中在北部保护区内,主要分布在灌丛湿地和盐沼湿地。 (3)电路理论模型结果表明:潜在生态廊道和 LCP 的变化与围垦活动及采油场建设的空间分布相一致。 1991 年潜在生态廊道宽阔,2020 年叠加围垦活动后,累计电流密度值分布破碎化,潜在生态廊道变窄,LCP 出现消失或变长的情况;在围垦活动基础上叠加采油场建设,累计电流密度值出现断崖式斑块状低值区,潜在生态廊道变得拥挤,LCP 明显加长,出现多处共用 LCP 的情况;围垦活动主要影响灌丛湿地、盐沼湿地和滩涂的潜在生态廊道和 LCP,表现为黄河三角洲东部及北部沿海湿地 连通性的显著降低。采油场建设则主要影响灌丛湿地、森林湿地和河流的潜在生态廊道和 LCP,体现在三角洲中部和西南部; (4)2020 年受围垦影响的“夹点”面积为 55.71 km2,其中保护区内“夹点”面积为 24.06 km2,占比 16.91%。采油场影响的“夹点”面积为 86.56 km2,其中 保护区内为 36.06 km2,占比 25.34%。障碍区则主要集中在北部保护区的西部和东南部以及黄河三角洲的中南部区域。 (5)在现有围垦和采油活动影响下,提出“严控生态本底,维护生态廊道—增强生态‘夹点’保护,提供踏脚石—恢复障碍区,平衡区域生态功能”的黄河三角洲湿地精细化保护与恢复管理建议。
Other AbstractLandscape connectivity is critical to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem stabilization. The Yellow River Delta has the youngest coastal wetland ecosytems with high biodiversity and ecosystem services in the world, which makes it a typical area to study landscape connectivity. In recent years, due to intensive human activities, wetlands in this detla had been significantly fragmented, resulting in the decreasing of landscape connectivity. Understanding the mechanism of the connectivity changes and effectively identifying the key landscape elements to affect connectivity will provide data support and scientific basis for the wetland conservation and restoration management in the Yellow River Delta. This study selected 1991 and 2020 as the key time nodes of wetland changes in the Yellow River Delta. We identified coastal reclamation and oil wells, two main drivers of wetland connectivity, and analysed their effcts on wetland connectivity, combining remote sensing, GIS and circuit theory model technologies. Here, we use a framework of wetland source identification, resistance surface construction and corridor extraction to carry out the following work. (1) Based on high-resolution remote sensing images, land use types (3 first-level, 19 second-level and 36 third-level) in 1991 and 2020 were visually interpreted. At the same time, coastal reclamation and oil wells were extracted. (2) Conefor software was used to analyze landscape structure and thus 73 ecological sources were identified according to the “attribute-structure” framework; (3) The resistance surface was constructed by referring to relevant literature and night light data; (4) The potential ecological corridors and Least Cost Path (LCP) were calculated using Circuitscape to analyze the impacts of reclamation activities and oil wells on landscape connectivity in 1991 and 2020; (5) The “pinch points” and obstacle areas were extracted to analyze their spatial characteristics. Based on our results, suggestions for conservation and restoration management of wetland landscape connectivity in the Yellow River Delta were put forward. The results showed that: (1) The area of natural wetlands decreased by 787.20 km2 from 1991 to 2020,while the areas of constructed wetlands and non-wetlands increased significantly in the Yellow River Delta. Natural wetlands were significantly fragmented except for the protected areas (PAs) in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve. The probability of connectivity (PC) of the natural wetlands decreased from 0.1801 to 0.0464. (2) During the past 30 years, the area of seven major reclamation types increased by 814.26 km2. The reclamation activities were the most prominent in the central and western parts of the Yellow River Delta, where herbaceous swamps and shrub wetlands had been transferred. 8,869 oil wells had been built, mainly in the central and eastern industrial and mining areas and 325 oil wells were built in the PAs. Most of wells were distributed in the shrub wetlands and salt marshes in the northern part of the PAs. (3) The results of the Circuitscape showed that: Spatial changes in potential ecological corridors and LCP are consistent with those of reclamations and oils well. In 1991, the potential ecological corridor was wide, but in 2020, the cumulative current density distribution was fragmented, the potential ecological corridor became narrower, and the LCP disappeared or became longer. On the basis of reclamation activities and oil production field construction, the accumulative current density appears the cliff-like patch low value area, the potential ecological corridor becomes crowded, the LCP is obviously lengthened, and a large number of LCPs have been shared by multiple ecological resources; Reclamation activities mainly affected the potential ecological corridors and LCP of shrub wetlands, salt marsh wetlands and mud flat, which showed that the connectivity of coastal wetlands in the east and north of the Yellow River Delta decreased significantly. The oil production field construction mainly affects the potential ecological corridor and LCP of shrub wetlands, forest wetlands and river, which mainly distributed in the central and southwestern Yellow River Delta. (4) In 2020, the area of “pinch point” affected by reclamation was 55.71 km2, of which the area of “pinch point” in the PAs was 24.06 km2, accounting for 16.91%. The area of “pinch point” affected by oil production field is 86.56 km2, of which 36.06 km2 is within the PAs, accounting for 25.34%. The obstacle areas are mainly concentrated in the west and southeast of the northern protected area and the central and south of the Yellow River Delta. (5) Based on the results above, the detailed suggestions on wetland conservationand restoration management in the Yellow River Delta were put forward. We should strictly control the ecological background value and maintain the connectivity of the ecological corridors. At the same time, pinch areas should be given high priority of conservation and the obstacle areas should be given high priority of restoration, respectively.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吴钰茹. 电路理论在黄河三角洲湿地景观连通性研究中的应用[D]. 中国科学院大学,2022.
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