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中国海岸带典型生态系统服务价值评估研究
Alternative TitleEvaluation of typical ecosystem service value in China’s coastal zone
刘玉斌
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor侯西勇
2021-05-09
Training institution中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Name工学博士
Degree Discipline环境科学
Keyword中国海岸带 土地利用 生态系统服务 生态系统服务价值 未来情景模拟
Abstract在全球气候变化、海平面上升、人类开发活动等背景下,围填海、陆源污染、海岸侵蚀等规模与强度均不断增大,我国海岸带生境正在或已遭受不同程度的破坏,据相关数据表明,我国50%以上的滨海湿地已丧失,海岸带生物多样性与生态系统健康面临严峻挑战,越来越多的海岸带生态系统产品和服务呈现不可持续的趋势。鉴于此,亟待开展我国海岸带生态系统服务及其价值评估研究,为海岸带区域政策制定、实施以及资源的合理配置提供一定参考和科学支撑。 本研究尝试中国海岸带宏观大尺度的历史时期和未来时期的生态系统服务及其价值评估。为全面了解中国海岸带区域土地生态系统的现状及其服务与价值的演变规律,从中国海岸带基本特征出发,参考诸多研究成果,构建适用于中国海岸带的生态系统服务分类系统。基于此分类系统,开展研究区生态系统服务识别与多样性分析研究,基于中国海岸带土地利用数据集,分析土地利用景观时空变化特征、转移变化特征及其景观格局指数变化特征,为后续中国海岸带生态系统服务估算提供支撑。选择主流成熟的具有普适性的估算模型或方法,评估2000-2015年中国海岸带4种典型生态服务及其价值,探讨研究区生态服务及其价值变化规律,并基于2025年多情景土地利用数据模拟评估未来生态系统服务及其价值,探讨未来多情景土地利用和生态系统服务价值的变化特征。主要结论如下: (1)中国海岸带生态系统服务分类与识别:基于中国海岸带自身的实际情况,参考诸多研究成果,建立一套适用于中国海岸带的生态系统服务分类系统,基于此,开展中国海岸带生态系统服务识别和多样性研究;2000-2015年中国海岸带区域生态系统服务类型的多样性整体呈下降趋势,离海岸线20 km范围的陆域其多样性变化最为剧烈,多样性高值区多分布于植被覆盖度较高的山地区域、海岸带滩涂和河口三角洲湿地,而低值区多分布于建设用地及其周边区域,受人为活动干扰剧烈。 (2)中国海岸带土地利用由海洋向内陆整体格局大致呈 “浅海水域—滨海湿地—人工湿地(盐田和养殖)—陆地混合类型区”空间分布特征。2000-2015年是中国海岸带土地利用人为开发活动显著的时期,城乡用地、养殖和工矿用地扩张显著,侵占大量耕地、浅海水域、滨海湿地和水库坑塘等,但随着时间的推移,其人为开发强度趋缓。我国海岸带土地利用景观整体斑块的破碎化态势显著,斑块类型间更加复杂多样,某些特定土地利用类型景观斑块集聚化明显。 (3)2000-2015年中国海岸带NPP与产水量空间分布整体均呈现由南向北逐渐降低的趋势。陆域型生态系统的NPP值高于浅海水域生态系统。4个时期,中国海岸带陆域NPP总量和土壤保持总量均呈下降的趋势,15年间分别减少586.36万吨和956万吨。4个时期,中国海岸带产水量、陆域池塘养殖产量和理想状态下盐田海盐产量均呈显著增加的趋势,而近海最大持续渔获量略微下降。 (4)2000-2015年中国海岸带生态系统服务总价值呈持续下降的趋势,15年间研究区生态系统服务总价值减少了354.63亿元。中国海岸带不同类型服务价值变化趋势不同,其物质生产服务价值呈显著增长趋势,而固碳释氧服务价值、水源涵养服务价值和土壤保持服务价值均呈持续减少的趋势。4个时期,中国海岸带生态系统水源涵养服务价值占比最大,其次是固碳释氧服务价值,而物质生产服务价值和土壤保持服务价值占比均较小。 (5)2025年趋势延续情景和生态保护情景下中国海岸带生态系统服务总价分别为31791.68亿元和31917.27亿元,与2015年相比,两种情景下生态系统服务总价值分别减少245.23亿元和119.64亿元,趋势延续情景生态系统服务总价值下降显著。两种情景下中国海岸带区域物质生产服务价值均呈增加的趋势,其中趋势延续情景下物质生产服务价值增加显著,而固碳释氧服务价值、水源涵养服务价值和土壤保持服务价值均呈减少的趋势,其中生态环境保护情景下3项服务价值缓慢减少,而趋势延续情景下3项服务价值下降显著。
Other AbstractUnder the background of global climate change, sea-level rise and human development activities, the scale and intensity of reclamation, land-based pollution, and coastal erosion are increasing. China’s coastal habitats are being or have been damaged to varying degrees. According to the relevant data, more than 50% of the coastal wetlands in China’s coastal zone have been lost. Coastal biodiversity and ecosystem health are facing serious challenges, and more and more coastal ecosystem products and services are showing unsustainable trends. Given this, it is urgent to carry out the research on the ecosystem services and their value assessment in china’s coastal zone, so as to provide some reference and scientific support for policy formulation, implementation and rational allocation of resources in the coastal zone region. This research attempts to evaluate the macro-scale ecosystem services and their value of China's coastal zone in historical and future periods. The purpose of this study is to comprehensively understand the current situation of land use ecosystem and the evolution of its service and value in China’s coastal zone. Based on the basic characteristics of China’s coastal zone and referring to many research results, the classification system of China's coastal ecosystem services was proposed. Afterward, based on this classification system, the identification and diversity analysis of regional ecosystem services in China’s coastal zone are carried out, and the spatiotemporal change characteristics, transfer change characteristics and landscape pattern index change characteristics of land use landscape are analyzed based on China’s coastal zone land use dataset, so as to provide support for the subsequent estimation of ecosystem services in China’s coastal zone. Four typical coastal ecosystem services and their values in China from 2000 to 2015 were evaluated by using mainstream and mature universal estimation models or methods, and discusses the change rules of ecological services and their values in China’s coastal zone, and the change of coastal ecosystem services and their values was discussed. Then, based on the multi scenario land use data in 2025, the future ecosystem services and their value are simulated and evaluated, and the interaction between land use and ecosystem services value under multi scenario in the future is discussed. The main conclusion are as follows: (1) Classification and identification of coastal ecosystem services in China are as follows: Based on the actual situation of China’s coastal zone, referring to many research results, a set of ecosystem service classification system suitable for China’s coastal zone has been established. Then, based on this classification system, the service identification and diversity of China’s coastal system are researched. From 2000 to 2015, the overall diversity of ecosystem service types in China’s coastal zone showed a downward trend, with the most dramatic changes in the land area within a 20-km radius from the coastline. The high value areas were mainly distributed in mountainous areas, coastal zones and estuarine delta wetlands with high vegetation coverage, while the low value areas were mainly distributed in construction land and its surrounding areas, which were severely disturbed by human activities. (2) The spatial distribution of land use in China’s coastal zone exhibited an overall pattern of "shallow water — saltwater wetlands — human-made wetland (salt pan and mariculture) — terrestrial multi-type mixed region" from the sea to the land. The period from 2000 to 2015 was a period of significant anthropogenic development of land use in China’s coastal zone. The urban and rural land, mariculture, isolated industrial-mining land expanded significantly, encroaching on large amounts of farmland, shallow water, saltwater wetlands, reservoirs and ponds, etc. However, the intensity of the artificial development has slowed down over time. During the study period, the fragmentation of the overall fragmentation of land use landscape in China’s coastal zone was significant, the patch types were more complex and diverse, and some specific types of land use landscape patch agglomeration was obvious. (3) The spatial distribution of NPP and water production in China’s coastal zone generally showed a decreasing trend from south to north during 2000-2015. The NPP value of terrestrial ecosystem was higher than that of shallow water ecosystem. The total amount of NPP and soil conservation in China’s coastal zone showed a downward trend in the four periods, with a decrease of 5.86 million tons and 9.56 million tons respectively in 15 years. During the four periods, China’s coastal water yield, mariculture production, salt pan yield under ideal conditions all showed a significant increase trend, while the offshore maximum sustainable catch decreased slightly. (4) The total value of ecosystem services in China’s coastal zone showed a trend of continuous decline, decreasing by 35.46 billion yuan from 2000 to 2015. The value of different services in China’s coastal zone has changed differently. The value of material production has shown a significant increase, while the value of carbon fixation and oxygen release services, water conservation services and soil conservation services have all shown a continuous decline. In the four periods, the value of water conservation service was the largest in China’s coastal ecosystem, followed by the value of carbon sequestration and oxygen release service, while the value of material production service and soil conservation service accounted for a small proportion. (5) The total value of ecosystem services in China’s coastal zone under the business-as-usual scenario and ecological protection scenario in 2025 decreased by 3179.17 billion yuan and 3191.73 billion yuan, respectively. Compared with 2015, the total value of ecosystem services under the two scenarios decreased by 24.52 billion yuan and 11.96 billion yuan respectively, and the total value of ecosystem services under the business-as-usual scenario decreased significantly. The value of material production service in China’s coastal zone increased under both scenarios, and it increased significantly under the business-as-usual scenario, while the value of carbon fixation and oxygen release service, water conservation service and soil conservation service decreased. The value of three services under the ecological protection scenario decreased slowly, while their value declined significantly under the business-as-usual scenario.
Subject Area环境地学
MOST Discipline Catalogue工学::环境科学与工程(可授工学、理学、农学学位)
Pages181
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/28411
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘玉斌. 中国海岸带典型生态系统服务价值评估研究[D]. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所. 中国科学院大学,2021.
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