YIC-IR  > 中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出  > 学位论文
基于蓬莱19-3 溢油事故和莱州现场模拟实验探究溢油对大型底栖动物群落结构的影响
Alternative TitleThe effects of oil spill on macrobenthic communities based on Penglai 19-3 oil spill accidents and in situ experiments at Laizhou, Shandong
周政权
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李宝泉
2018-05-21
Training institution中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline海洋生物学
Keyword大型底栖动物 群落特征 底栖健康评价 蓬莱19-3溢油 M-BACI macrobenthos community characteristics benthic ecological health assessment Penglai 19-3 oil spill M-BACI
Abstract本文的主要研究目的是:基于现状调查,掌握渤海海域底栖生物群落状况,探究蓬莱19-3平台溢油事故对渤海海域底栖生物群落结构的长期影响;基于现场模式实验,明晰大型底栖动物群落在不同程度溢油事故胁迫下的群落特征变化和生物响应,以及溢油发生后大型底栖动物群落在时间序列上的生物响应特征和演替过程。根据以上研究目的,主要进行了以下两方面的工作。 1. 研究蓬莱19-3平台溢油事故对渤海海域底栖生物群落结构的长期影响。于2014年夏季对渤海海域27站位底栖生物进行现状采样调查,并与历史数据进行比较,分析渤海海域底栖生物的群落结构、物种组成和底质状况。结果表明,渤海调查海域32站位共鉴定出大型底栖生物191种,其中多毛类环节动物83种,甲壳动物40种,软体动物42种,棘皮动物15种,其它类群动物11种,优势种为凸壳肌蛤(Musculus senhousei)。调查海域大型底栖生物平均丰度为676.88 ind/m2,变化范围15 ind/m2~11555 ind/m2,低于溢油前水平;平均生物量为30.77 g/m2,变化范围0.09 g/m2~141.55 g/m2,高于溢油前水平。生物量的主要贡献者为棘皮动物,丰度的主要贡献者为软体动物,底栖生物群落结构的小型化有减缓趋势。Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数、Margalef物种丰富度指数和Pielou物种均匀度指数平均值分别为3.11 ± 1.20、2.89 ± 1.40和0.82 ± 0.22。 ABC曲线显示渤海海域处于中度扰动的状态,溢油区各站位ABC曲线均显示底质状况较好,但其中个别站位生物量起点较低且曲线整体偏左,说明溢油区大型底栖生物群落有受到中度干扰的趋势。AMBI和M-AMBI指数评价结果表明,溢油事故海域底栖健康状况良好,溢油事故发生海域三年后的底栖环境基本恢复到健康水平,大型底栖动物群落已得到不同程度的恢复。 2. 探明大型底栖动物群落在不同程度溢油事故胁迫下的群落特征变化和生物响应。为了更加明确和量化溢油对底栖动物群落的生态效应,于2015年4月至8月,在山东烟台莱州潮间带运用Multivariate Before and After/Control and Impact(M-BACI)实验设计方法,进行现场溢油模拟实验。结果表明,实验期间,沉积物粒径没有显著的变化,各实验组石油烃含量随时间的推移均呈先下降后上升的趋势。4月至8月烟台莱州潮间带共采集大型底栖动物样本33种,其中软体动物15种,多毛动物11种,甲壳动物6种,纽虫1种。优势种为古氏滩栖螺(Batillaria cumingi),中阿曼吉虫(Armandia intermedia),三叶针尾涟虫(Diastylis tricincta),彩虹明樱蛤(Moerella iridescens)和日本刺沙蚕(Neanthes japonica)。模拟溢油事故发生后,不同物种对溢油的生物响应不同,古氏滩栖螺的丰度在溢油发生后逐渐上升,在溢油事故发生63天后平均丰度高于实验前水平。同时,适宜的柴油浓度为中阿曼吉虫提供了适宜的生长环境,但过高浓度可抑制其生长。与之相反,彩虹明樱蛤和日本刺沙蚕在溢油发生后丰度骤减,对溢油的耐受力较差。三叶针尾涟虫自主迁移能力较强,在低浓度溢油区大量出现,但实验后期其在对照组和实验组的丰度均减少。 实验组中,500 ml和2000 ml两个对照组的平均丰度、生物量均有所上升,4000 ml高浓度的溢油区,平均丰度、生物量和物种数均有所下降,且在实验进行的时间跨度内难以恢复,这与中度干扰假说的预测相一致,即中等程度的扰动有利于增加群落的稳定性和物种多样性,而高强度和高频率的扰动会严重影响群落的稳定。溢油浓度越高,物种数降低越明显。随时间的推移,低浓度实验区物种数有恢复迹象,高浓度实验区物种数仍保持在较低水平。 SIMPER分析结果表明,溢油事故前后的群落物种组成差异较大,溢油后的群落主要贡献种由彩虹明樱蛤、中阿曼吉虫、古氏滩栖螺和三叶针尾涟虫等4种转变为仅古氏滩栖螺1种。n-MDS多维标度分析表明,实验前后底栖动物群落结构差异显著;对物种丰度和生物量数据进行多因素方差分析(ANOVA),实验中各浓度梯度,采样时期和采样时间等因子对大型底栖动物群落生物量和丰度均有极显著影响。 本文主要结论如下:① 溢油事故3年后,溢油平台邻近站位的底栖生物群落与周边对照点在物种组成、优势种、生物量、丰度和物种多样性方面没有显著性的差异。表明受溢油影响的底栖生物群落已得到不同程度地恢复;② 溢油事故会显著改变潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构,高浓度溢油会对大型底栖动物群落结构产生持续性影响,生物量和丰度显著降低且恢复周期大于2个月。
Other AbstractThis thesis aimed to solve the following questions: understanding the long-term impact of Penglai 19-3 oil spill event on benthic ecosystem and its present quality in Bohai Sea; studying the exact variation process of macrobenthic community under different degrees of diesel oil disturbances at intertidal flats, and observing the recovery time of macrobenthic assemblages in consideration of species number, abundance and biomass. The main results were shown as bellows. The macrobenthic community was quantitatively researched based on data carried out at 27 sampling stations from August to September in 2014, Bohai Sea. 191 macrobenthic species in total were obtained in present work, most of the them belong to Polychaeta (83), Mollusca (42), Crustacea (40) and Echinodermata (15). The dominant species was molluscan Musculus senhousei, as a disturbance tolerant species, which could affect the stability of macrofauna community. The total mean abundance was 676.88 ind/m², varied from 15 ind/m2 to 11555 ind/m2, which was lower than the value of survey results before the oil spill happened; the total mean biomass of this area reached 30.77 g/m², varied from 0.09 g/m2 to 141.55 g/m2, which was higher than the previous level before the oil spill happened. The main contributor to the biomass value belonged to Echinodermata, while Mollusca contributed the most to abundance value. Comparing to previous studies, the trend of macrobenthic miniaturization in body size seemed to slow down. The mean value of Shannon-Wiener diversity index, richness index and evenness index were respectively 3.11±1.20, 2.89±1.40 and 0.82±0.22. Abundance Biomass Comparison Curves indicated that the macrofauna communities in the research region had been suffered from good to moderate disturbance. The results of AMBI and M-AMBI indices showed that the benthic health at oil spill accident area was good, and the benthic environment in the sea area of oil spill had been restored to a healthy condition three years after the oil spill. In order to investigate the structure changes of macrobenthic fauna under different degrees of oil spill stress and its specific community succession process, the oil spill simulation experiment was carried out in 2015 in the intertidal zone of Laizhou, Shandong province, using multivariate before and after/control and impact (M-BACI) experimental design method. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the sediment grain size, and the content of petroleum hydrocarbon decreased and then slightly increased within the temporal scale in this experiment. In total, 35 macrobenthos were obtained at the sampling intertidal zone, among which Mollusca was the most abundant taxon with 16 species (45.71%), followed by Polychaeta with 12 species (34.29%). Crustaceans comprised 17.14% of the total fauna with 6 species, and 1 Nemertea took the least composition. Five species were identified as the dominant species according to their dominant values (Y>0.02), including 2 mulluscs Batillaria cumingi and Moerella iridescens; 2 polychates Armandia intermedia and Neanthes japonica; 1 crustacean Diastylis tricincta. The abundance values of Batillaria cumingi witnessed an increasing in all impact groups after the experimental oil spill, while the abundance of which remained steady in control group with in the sampling time scale. Armandia intermedia and Diastylis tricincta experienced a dramatic raise two days after the oil spill, yet gradually disappear in the subsequent sampling dates. Moerella iridescens and Neanthes japonica existed in all of the control and impact groups before oil spill interference, while both of them had underwent a decrease tendency in impact groups after oil spill experiment with stable quantity in control groups. The SIMPER analysis showed that the main contributor to the community similarity before the oil spill were Moerella iridescens, Armandia intermedia, Batillaria cumingi and Diastylis tricincta, while only Batillaria cumingi after the oil spill. The ANOSIM analysis showed that the macrobenthic assemblages differed significantly before and after the oil spill. In the 2D plot of n-MDS, remarkable discrepancy could also be detected before and after the oil impact. The ANOVA and PERMANOVA analysis indicated that the macrobenthic assemblages showed significant variations in abundance, biomass, and species number under different degrees of oil impact across two experimental periods. The main conclusions in thesis were, i) After 3 years of Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident, the benthic communities affected by oil spill had been restored to different degrees, and there was no significant difference in species composition, dominant species, biomass, abundance and species diversity between benthic communities and peripheral control points in adjacent sea waters; ii) The macrobenthos reacted diversely to various degrees of oil spill impacts at intertidal zone in Laizhou Bay. At the spatial and temporal scales in this experiment, the macrobenthic communities were significantly influenced by the oil contaminants. Some of the species were resilient to the oil spill impact, yet some were sensitive to the planned oil spillage. The community gradually recovered at low concentration oil polluted areas, but not recolonized at high concentration zone.
Subject Area海洋生物学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/25260
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出_学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周政权. 基于蓬莱19-3 溢油事故和莱州现场模拟实验探究溢油对大型底栖动物群落结构的影响[D]. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所. 中国科学院大学,2018.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
基于蓬莱19-3 溢油事故和莱州现场模拟(2638KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[周政权]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[周政权]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[周政权]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.