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黄河三角洲恢复湿地磷的存储容量及其影响因素研究
宋佳伟
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor徐刚
2020-05-22
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
Degree Name工学硕士
Degree Discipline环境科学
Keyword黄河三角洲,恢复湿地,磷吸附饱和度,磷存储容量,存储机制
Abstract我国土壤磷流失严重,流失的磷是造成水体富营养化的主要原因之一。滨海湿地作为连接陆地和海洋的特殊生态系统,具有较强的过滤和沉降外来污染物的能力,是磷的主要源、汇和转换器。土壤磷存储容量(SPSC)描述了土壤磷到达或超过磷环境风险临界值,土壤中剩余磷的保存或释放能力,可以用于评价湿地磷的存储能力和潜在的释放风险。本研究以黄河三角洲不同土地利用类型和黄河三角洲恢复湿地为研究对象,采用磷等温吸附的方法,拟合得出了黄河三角洲土壤磷的最大吸附量(Qmax),明确了黄河三角洲土壤磷吸附饱和度(DPS)和磷存储容量(SPSC)的关键控制因子。利用土壤磷存储容量,研究了黄河三角洲由陆向海过渡带不同土地利用类型磷存储容量变化,讨论了恢复湿地磷存储容量受盐度、植被条件、时间变化以及剖面深度的影响,在此基础上,进一步通过室内培养试验探讨了恢复湿地磷的保存机制。研究结果主要包括: 1. 通过对黄河三角洲由陆向海过渡带不同土地利用类型土壤分析实验表明:黄河三角洲碱性土壤磷流失的吸附饱和度(DPS)的临界值为14.41 %,即土壤DPS值超过14.41 %时,土壤径流液水溶性磷浓度明显升高,即土壤磷存在较高流失风险,而DPS值低于14.41%时,土壤磷流失风险低。在土壤流失临界值基础上,拟合得出了黄河三角洲土壤磷存储容量(SPSC)的计算公式为:SPSC=(14.41 % - DPS) (0.007 CaM3 + 0.153 MgM3 + 0.133 Feox + 0.106 Alox),以此计算了黄河三角洲不同土地利用类型SPSC的大小顺序为:恢复湿地(90.4 ± 20.2 mg/kg)>滩涂湿地(46.6 ± 14.0 mg/kg)≈荒地(42.4 ± 22.0 mg/kg)≈棉田(36.6 ± 26.5 mg/kg)≈果园(31.6 ± 25.8 mg/kg)≈粮田(16.2 ± 38.0 mg/kg)>菜地(-47.6 ± 88.2 mg/kg)。SPSC的数据说明:从内陆的菜地到近岸恢复湿地土壤磷存储能力逐渐增大,而磷释放风险逐渐降低。因此,恢复湿地是黄河三角洲由陆向海过渡带上磷存储的“高地”,应当充分发挥恢复湿地的磷存储功能。 2. 恢复湿地土壤磷存储能力受多种因素的影响。湿地恢复降低了土壤盐度,显著提高了土壤磷存储能力(恢复湿地的SPSC范围在86.3-154.0mg/kg,未恢复湿地的SPSC范围在57.4-111.8mg/kg)。且湿地恢复时间越长,SPSC值越高:2002年恢复湿地(R2002)>2006年恢复湿地(R2006)≈未恢复湿地(R0)。不同植被和不同生长月份的变化对恢复湿地土壤的磷存储能力影响不显著。土壤对磷的存储能力随剖面深度增加而逐渐降低,表层土壤对磷的存储能力显著高于下层土壤,是磷的主要存储层。经计算得到R0、R2006和R2002 年湿地的安全运行年限分别为130-718 年、135-755 年、151-852 年。总之,黄河三角洲湿地恢复显著提高了土壤磷的存储能力。 3. 黄河三角洲恢复湿地土壤磷存储容量同土壤理化性质相关性分析表明:恢复湿地SPSC与pH呈显著负相关关系(p<0.01),与Feox,Alox,TOC,MgM3,粘粒含量呈显著正相关(p<0.01),说明黄河三角洲恢复湿地磷存储的主要基质是Feox、MgM3和Alox,而粘粒、TOC含量以及pH显著影响磷的存储。室内培养实验表明:黄河三角洲恢复湿地存储磷主要以吸附态磷,钙镁结合态磷和铁铝结合态磷形式存在,未恢复湿地主要以吸附态磷,钙镁结合态磷形式存在。因此,湿地恢复前后土壤对磷的存储机制存在显著差异,即湿地恢复后铁铝对磷保存贡献明显升高。因此,黄河三角洲恢复湿地磷的存储主要跟湿地恢复过程中有机质积累,钙镁铁铝等磷结合离子活化有关。 综上所述,黄河三角洲由陆向海过渡带,恢复湿地磷存储容量最大,可以充当抵御陆源磷进入海洋天然的“生态屏障”。 湿地恢复显著提高了土壤磷的存储能力,恢复湿地磷的存储主要跟湿地恢复过程中有机质积累,钙镁铁铝等离子活化有关。该研究的研究结果可以为湿地保护和管理提供基础数据,还可以为实现流域磷平衡和渤海环境污染治理提供科学依据。
Other AbstractThe loss of phosphorus (P) of soils in China is one of the main reasons for the water eutrophication. As a special ecosystem connecting the land and the ocean, coastal wetlands have a strong ability to filter and settle external pollutants. Wetlands are considered as the source, sink, and transformer of P. The P storage capacity of soil (SPSC), the threshold for P of soil reaching or exceeding the critical value of P environmental risk, describes the remaining P storage or release capacity in the soil, which can be used to evaluate P storage capacity and potential release risks in the wetland. In this study, different land use types in the Yellow River Delta and restored wetlands in the Yellow River Delta were taken as the research object, and the method combining the isothermal adsorption of P was used to fit the maximum adsorption amount (Qmax) of P in the soil of Yellow River Delta, and the degree of P saturation (DPS) and the key control factor of P storage capacity (SPSC) of soil in the Yellow River Delta was clarified. The P storage capacity of different land-use types in the transition zone from the land to the sea in the Yellow River Delta was studied. The critical value of loss of P in soil and the SPSC were explored in wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. The effect of salinity, vegetation conditions, time changes, and profile depth on SPSC was discussed. Furthermore, the preservation mechanism of P in restored wetlands was explored through indoor cultivation experiments. The results were as followed: 1. Analysis experiments on soil in different land-use types in the transition zone from the land to the sea in the Yellow River Delta show that the critical value of the degree of P saturation (DPS) is 14.41% in alkaline soil of the Yellow River Delta, which indicate that when the DPS in the soil exceeds 14.41%, the concentration of water-soluble P increases significantly in the runoff fluid of the soil, that is, the P of soil has a high loss Risk, and when the DPS is less than 14.41%, the risk of loss of P in soil is low. On the basis of the critical value of soil loss, the calculation formula of the P storage capacity (SPSC) of soil in the Yellow River Delta is: SPSC = (14.41%-DPS) × (0.007 CaM3 + 0.153 MgM3 + 0.133 Feox + 0.106 Alox). The order of the SPSC of different soil use types in the Yellow River Delta is listed as followed: restored wetland (90.4 ± 20.2mg/kg) > tidal flat wetland (46.6 ± 14.0 mg/kg) ≈wasteland(42.4 ± 22.0 mg/kg) ≈Cotton field (36.6 ± 26.5 mg/kg) ≈Orchard (31.6 ± 25.8 mg/kg) ≈Grain field (16.2 ± 38.0 mg/kg) > Vegetable field (-47.6 ± 88.2 mg/kg). The data of SPSC shows that the P storage capacity of soil gradually increases from vegetable field of the inland to the restored wetland of near-shore, and the risk of P release gradually decreases. Therefore, the restored wetlands is the “highland” of P storage on the transition zone from the land to the sea in the Yellow River Delta, and the P storage function of the restored wetlands should be fully utilized. 2. The P storage capacity of soil in the restored wetland is affected by many factors. Wetland restoration reduces the salinity of soil and significantly improves P storage capacity of soil (SPSC in the restored wetlands ranges from 86.3-154.0mg/kg, SPSC in the unrestored wetlands ranges from 57.4-111.8mg/kg). And the longer the wetland recovery time, the higher the SPSC value: 2002 restored wetland (R2002)> 2006 restored wetland (R2006) ≈unrestored wetland (R0).that the SPSC of restored wetlands is significantly and negative correlated with pH (p<0.01), and is significantly and positive correlated with Feox, Alox, TOC, MgM3, and clay content (p<0.01), indicating that the main matrix for P storage is Feox, MgM3 and Alox in restored wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, and the clay, TOC content and pH significantly affect the P storage. Indoor cultivation experiments show that the restored wetlands in the Yellow River delta store P mainly in the form of adsorbed P, calcium-magnesium-bound P and iron-aluminum-bound P, while the unrestored wetlands store P mainly in the form of adsorbed P and calcium-magnesium-bound P. Therefore, the storage mechanism of P in soil before and after wetland restoration was significantly different, that is, the contribution of iron and aluminum to P preservation was significantly increased after wetland restoration.Therefore, the storage of P in restored wetlands in the Yellow River Delta is mainly related to the accumulation of organic matter and the activation of P binding ions such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum during the restoration of wetlands. In summary, in the transitional zone from the land to the sea in the Yellow River Delta, the P storage capacity of soil in the restored wetland is maximum, which can serve as a natural "ecological barrier" against land-based P from entering the ocean. Wetland restoration significantly improves the P storage capacity of soil. The P storage capacity of soil in the restored wetlands is mainly related to the accumulation of organic matter and the activation of calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum plasma in the process of wetland restoration. The research results of this study can provide basic data for wetland protection and management, and also provide a scientific basis for achieving P balance in the river basin and environmental pollution control in the Bohai Sea.
MOST Discipline Catalogue工学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/24217
Collection中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出_学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋佳伟. 黄河三角洲恢复湿地磷的存储容量及其影响因素研究[D]. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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