Measurement of PM and its chemical composition in real-world emissions from non-road and on-road diesel vehicles
Cui, Min1; Chen, Yingjun1; Feng, Yanli2; Li, Cheng3; Zheng, Junyu4; Tian, Chongguo5; Yan, Caiqing6,7; Zheng, Mei6,7
2017-06-09
发表期刊ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS
ISSN1680-7316
卷号17期号:11页码:6779-6795
摘要With the rapid growth in the number of both non-road and on-road diesel vehicles, the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) and its constituents on air quality and human health have attracted increasing attentions. However, studies on the characteristics of PM and its composition emitted from diesel vehicles are still scarce, especially under real-world driving conditions. In this study, six excavators and five trucks that provided a wide range of emission standards and operation modes were tested, and PM emissions and their constituents - including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (WSIs), elements, and organic species like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, and hopanes - as well as steranes were analyzed and characterized. The average emission factors for PM (EFPM) from excavator and truck emissions were 829 +/- 806 and 498 +/- 234 mgkg(-1) fuel, respectively. EFPM and PM constituents were significantly affected by fuel quality, operational mode, and emission standards. A significant correlation (R-2 = 0.79, p < 0.01) was found between EFPM for excavators and the sulfur contents in fuel. The highest average EFPM for working excavators was 904 +/- 979 mgkg(-1) fuel as a higher engine load required in this mode. From pre-stage 1 to stage 2, the average EFPM for excavators decreased by 58 %. For trucks, the average nonhighway EFPM at 548 +/- 311 mgkg(-1) fuel was higher than the highway EFPM at 497 +/- 231 mgkg(-1) fuel. Moreover, the reduction rates were 63.5 and 65.6% when switched from China II and III to China IV standards, respectively. Generally, the PM composition emitted from excavators was dominated by OC (39.2 +/- 21.0 %) and EC (33.3 +/- 25.9 %); PM from trucks was dominated by EC (26.9 +/- 20.8 %), OC (9.89 +/- 12 %), and WSIs (4.67 +/- 5.74 %). The average OC/EC ratios for idling and working excavators were 3 to 4 times higher than those for moving excavators. Although the EFPM for excavators and trucks was reduced with the constraint of regulations, the element fractions for excavators increased from 0.49% in pre-stage 1 to 3.03% in stage 2, and the fraction of WSIs for the China IV truck was 5 times higher than the average value of all other-level trucks. Furthermore, as compared with other diesel vehicles, wide ranges were found for excavators of the ratios of benzo[a] anthracene/(benzo[a] anthracene + chrysene) (0.26-0.86), indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene/( indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene + benzo[ghi] perylene) (0.20-1.0), and fluoranthene = (fluoranthene C pyrene) (0.24-0.87), which might be a result of the complex characteristics of the excavator operation modes. A comparison of our results with those in the literature revealed that on-board measurement data more accurately reflect actual conditions. Although the fractions of the 16 priority PAHs in PM from the excavator and truck emissions were similar, the equivalent concentrations of total benzo[ a] pyrene of excavators were 31 times than that for trucks, implying that more attention should be paid to non-road vehicle emissions.
DOI10.5194/acp-17-6779-2017
项目资助者CAS Strategic Research Program(XDB05030303) ; Natural Scientific Foundation of China(41473091 ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities ; National Distinguished Young Scholar Science Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China(41325020) ; 41273135)
收录类别SCI
关键词[WOS]POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; RIVER DELTA REGION ; PARTICULATE MATTER ; CARBONACEOUS COMPOSITION ; ORGANIC COMPOSITION ; SIZE DISTRIBUTION ; AIR-POLLUTANTS ; COMMON-RAIL ; CHINA ; ENGINE
文章类型Article
语种英语
WOS研究方向Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
WOS记录号WOS:000403213700002
引用统计
被引频次:4[WOS]   [WOS记录]     [WOS相关记录]
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/22532
专题中科院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室
作者单位1.Tongji Univ, China Meteorol Adm, Key Lab Cities Mitigat & Adaptat Climate Change S, Coll Environm Sci & Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China
2.Shanghai Univ, Sch Environm & Chem Engn, Inst Environm Pollut & Hlth, Shanghai, Peoples R China
3.South China Univ Technol, Lab Atmospher Res & Environm Simulat, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China
4.Jinan Univ, Sch Environm & Climate, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China
5.Chinese Acad Sci, Yantai Inst Coastal Zone Res, Key Lab Coastal Zone Environm Proc & Ecol Remedia, Yantai, Peoples R China
6.Peking Univ, Coll Environm Sci & Engn, SKL ESPC, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
7.Peking Univ, Coll Environm Sci & Engn, BIC EAST, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
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GB/T 7714
Cui, Min,Chen, Yingjun,Feng, Yanli,et al. Measurement of PM and its chemical composition in real-world emissions from non-road and on-road diesel vehicles[J]. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,2017,17(11):6779-6795.
APA Cui, Min.,Chen, Yingjun.,Feng, Yanli.,Li, Cheng.,Zheng, Junyu.,...&Zheng, Mei.(2017).Measurement of PM and its chemical composition in real-world emissions from non-road and on-road diesel vehicles.ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,17(11),6779-6795.
MLA Cui, Min,et al."Measurement of PM and its chemical composition in real-world emissions from non-road and on-road diesel vehicles".ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 17.11(2017):6779-6795.
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