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Title:
莱州湾滨海湿地植被调查及植物生长与面积变化模型研究
Author: 陈琤1,2
Degree Level: 硕士
Issued Date: 2017-05-24
Degree Grantor: 中国科学院大学
Place of Degree Grantor: 北京
Supervisor: 刘玉虹
Keyword: 昌邑海洋生态特别保护区 ; 盐地碱蓬 ; STELLA 模型 ; 滩涂沉积
Subject: 环境科学技术::环境科学技术基础学科::环境生态学
Abstract: 本研究通过 2014 年和 2016 年保护区实地考察, 使用样线、 样方法,采集土
壤、植物和水体样品并进行实验室测定, 研究昌邑国家级海洋生态特别保护区植
被与土壤状况及其相互关系,探讨保护区内滨海湿地发育状况及其影响因素,为
科学、有效保护滨海湿地提供科学性建议。根据调查植物数据, 研究保护区内植
物物种种类及其分布情况;通过分析保护区内主要植物物种和土壤 CNP 化学计
量特征,研究植物生长策略和土壤性质; 通过相关分析法,探讨植物物种丰富度
与土壤性质之间相互关系; 通过 STELLA 软件构建以潮汐模块、植物生长模块
和沉积模块为基础的典型滨海湿地植物生长与滩涂沉积模型, 根据实测数据、文
献数据和遥感数据对模型进行验证、校准,模拟预测滩涂湿地发育现状与未来发
展趋势。 主要研究结果如下:
( 1)保护区内植物物种共有 14 种,属于 6 科、 12 属,主要植物种为盐地
碱蓬、柽柳、茵陈蒿、芦苇和獐毛。 植被类型以盐生植被为主,主要分为柽柳-
茵陈蒿植物群落和獐毛-盐地碱蓬植物群落两类。 由于 5 种主要植物种 C、 N、 P
化学计量学特征不同, 这些植物所采取的生长策略不同, 而且生长速度也存在差
异。 植物物种丰富度与土壤 pH 值和 C 含量呈正相关关系,与土壤盐度呈负相关
关系。 保护区土壤在防潮堤坝内外两侧存在明显差异,堤坝内部土壤盐度小于堤
坝外部,堤坝内部土壤 CNP 含量大于堤坝外部,不同土层 pH值不同,表层 0-10cm
土壤 pH 最小,越往土壤深处 pH 值越大, 土壤盐度与土壤 CNP 含量呈负相关关
系而土壤 C 含量与土壤 N 含量呈正相关关系。
( 2)模型验证及模拟结果显示: 滩涂区( 植物生长区域面积) 模拟结果较
好(R2=0.870,模型效率 EF=0.873); 光滩区 (无植物生长区域)模拟结果较差 (R2=-0.122,模型效率 EF=-0.017); 滩涂区面积在 2005 年至 2016 年期间不断减
少,面积减少了 30.28%,而在 2017 年至 2021 年 5 年间,面积将继续减少 18.21%;
光滩区面积在 2005 年至 2016 年期间呈现缓慢增长趋势,面积增加了 3.49%,而
在 2017 年至 2021 年 5 年间面积将缓慢增长 1.40%。
( 3) 滩涂区某些区域在植物死亡后将转变为光滩, 光滩区受到潮汐侵蚀和
沉积作用, 其面积虽有缓慢增长,但增长速率远赶不上滩涂区的缩减速率,模拟
区域总面积呈现减少状态。 当模拟区域受到风暴潮影响,植物生长区域面积缩减
幅度明显增大, 而且特大风暴潮对植物生长影响更加剧烈、深远。
 
English Abstract: In this study, the samples of soil, plants and water were collected by using field survey, line transect method and quadrat sampling method and measured in laboratory in2014 and 2016 in order to study the relationships between vegetation and soil, explore development status and influencing factors of coastal wetland and provide scientific, and effective suggestions for protection of coastal wetlands. Based on the data of the vegetation community and soil obtained from the field survey, the plant species types and their distribution were analyzed.By analyzing CNP stoichiometric characteristics of soil and plants, we studied plant growth strategies and soil properties. The correlation between plant species richness and soil properties was explored by correlation analysis. The typical coastal wetland plant growth and beach sediments model including tidal module, plant growth module and sediment module was constructed by using STELLA software, verified by the measured data, literature data and remote sensing data and used to forecast the present situation and future development trend of coastal wetland. The following results and conclusions were listed below:
(1) There are 14 species belong to 6 families and 12 genera in this protected area and the typical plants were Suaeda salsa, Tamarix chinensis, Artemisia capillaries, Phragmites australis, Aeluropus sinensis. Salt-based vegetation is a typical vegetation type, as included two plant communities: one is Tamarix chinensis
+Artemisia capillaris and the other is Aegilops tauschii + Salix psammophila. Because of different CNP stoichiometric characteristics in the five plant species, the growth strategies and growth rates of these plant species were different. Plant species richness was positively correlated with pH and C content of soil, respectively and negatively with soil salinity. There was a significant difference between the inside and outside of the dam in the protected area. The soil salinity inside the dam was less than that outside the dam. The content of CNP of soil in the dam was higher than that outside the dam. The values of pH of the soil were different among soil layers, the0-10cm surface soil pH of which was minimum and the values of pH became greater with the depths of the soil increasing. Soil salinity was negatively correlated with CNP content, and C content of soil was positively correlated with its N content.
(2) The validation results showed that the mud flat was well simulated (R2 = 0.870; EF=0.873), and bare flat did worse (R2 = -0.122; EF= -0.017). The area of mud flat decreased to 30.28% from 2005 to 2016, and would continue to reduce to18.21% from 2017 to 2021 by the model prediction. A slow growth trend was displayed in the area of bare flat from 2005 to 2016, and the increased area arrived at 3.49%. Moreover, this area would increase by 1.40% slowly from 2017 to 2021.
(3) The simulated area of bare flat is affected by tidal erosion and sedimentation, and some of regin 2 would transform into bare flat when plants in regin 2 died. Although the bare flat grows slowly, its growth rate is less than the reduction rate of mud flat, hence the total area of the simulated area would decrease. The simulated area is ofen affected by storm surge, and the area of plant growth area would decrease quickly when storm surge happen, moreover the effects on plant growth caused by storm surge are more dramatic and far-reaching.

 
Content Type: 学位论文
URI: http://ir.yic.ac.cn/handle/133337/22453
Appears in Collections:中科院烟台海岸带研究所知识产出_学位论文

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description.institution: 1.中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所
2.中国科学院大学

Recommended Citation:
陈琤. 莱州湾滨海湿地植被调查及植物生长与面积变化模型研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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